Wednesday, March 13, 2019

Foreign and Local Literature of Effects of Online Games to Students

COMMONWEALTH score THE BIRTH OF THE ripe COMMONWEALTH The birth of the modern body politic, as we recognise it today, really began with the independency of India and Pakistan from Britain in 1947. In 1949, Indias desire to become a res publica and to cut constitutional ties with the British monarchy while remaining within the population, forced leaders to rethink the principles of domain membership. The London Declaration of the same stratum dropped the word British from the associations title.Removing the requirement that member countries get the British Monarch as their Head of State, the same Declaration prize King George VI as the symbol of their free association and as such Head of the area. India was thus welcomed as the frontmost republican member in a modern, and voluntary, association. So exceptional was the spirit of readjustment on all sides in reaching this agreement that the Indian choice Minister, Jawarhalal Nehru, was moved to say at the time that the p opulation could bring a touch of healing to the management of contemporary world problems.Committed to racial equality and national sovereignty, the state became the natural association of choice for many an(prenominal) new nations emerging out of decolonisation in the 1950s and 1960s. gold coast achieved independence in 1957 and became the first majority-ruled African member. Jamaica was the first to claim independence in the Caribbean in 1962 and, in the same year, Samoa became the first among countries in the peaceful (excluding Australia and New Zealand). From this point on, the Commonwealth expanded rapidly.IMPORTANT MILESTONES IN HISTORY In 1965, an important milestone was reached when Commonwealth leaders established the Commonwealth secretariat at Marlborough House in London. This was to be the associations own independent civil service, headed by a Commonwealth Secretary-General. The Secretary-General is directly elected by Heads for no more than two four-year terms in office. Mr Kamalesh Sharma, an Indian diplomat, took up office as the most recent Commonwealth Secretary-General in April 2008.He is the fifth, and follows the Canadian Arnold Smith (1965 1975), Sir Shridath Ramphal, from Guyana (1975 1990), Chief Anyaoku, from Nigeria (1990 2000) and New Zealander, mount McKinnon (2000 2008). Previously, the Commonwealth had been administered through the government of the UK, but this move made the Secretariat answerable to all member governments. It carries out consultations on their behalf, helps them with policy-making, the spread of entropy and the delivery of agreed Commonwealth initiatives.A year later, in 1966, the Commonwealth Foundation was launched to support the work of a growing number of Commonwealth professional associations and NGOs and to promote Commonwealth art and culture. Two further milestones occurred in 1971. First, leaders adopted the Singapore Declaration of Commonwealth Principles which gave the association a formal code of ethics and committed members to improving gentlemans gentleman rights and pursuit racial and economic justice. The leaders declared their belief in peace, liberty, human dignity and country.At the same time, they declared their abhorrence of racial prejudice, compound domination and wide disparities of wealth. The Heads declared We believe that international co-operation is essential to move back the causes of war, promote tolerance, combat injustice and secure development. We are convinced that the Commonwealth is one of the most fruitful associations for these purposes(and that it can) provide a constructive ensample of the multi-national approach which is vital(and) based on consultation, discussion and co-operation. Secondly, they established the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation. Based on the concept of mutualism, the Fund was among the first to advance the idea of technical cooperation among developing countries. In 1991, building on the principals adopt ed in Singapore, the Harare Declaration set the Commonwealth steadfastly on new course for a new century that of promoting majority rule and good governance, human rights and the rule of law, and sustainable economic and social development.As part of the Harare priorities, the Commonwealth provides assistance to countries in transition to democracy by helping to draft legislation, review and amend electoral procedures and differently create the framework for democracy to take root. Between 1990 and mid-1996, the Commonwealth discover some 18 elections or referendums to further this work. At a 1995 superlative in New Zealand, leaders adopted the Millbrook Commonwealth Action create mentally to give practical expression to the Harare principles, particularly democracy, evelopment and consensus-building. They agreed on practical steps to address serious and persistent violations of these principles and established a mechanism a Ministerial Action Group of Foreign Ministers to b unk this forward. It was in this context that, in the face of human rights abuses by a military regime, they took the unprecedented step of suspending Nigerias membership.

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