Saturday, August 31, 2019

The Conflict of Women in 20th Century India

Throughout recorded history, women the world over have been held to different standards than men. They have been consistently oppressed in nearly all aspects of life, from political to personal, public to private. In the 20th century, great strides have been taken to end this oppression and level the playing field. In India however, a number of deeply rooted traditions have made this effort particularly difficult, and as a result, women's triumphs over oppression in India are all the more intriguing. To understand the position women found themselves in at the dawn of the 20th century, one must have a general understanding of the numerous historical women's conflicts unique to the Subcontinent. It took the overwhelming success of Gandhi's nonviolent revolution to unite women politically and create the an atmosphere whereby women, empowered by the times, could take a stand for their equality. The 1970's saw the beginning of a highly organized modern women's movement in India. Violence against women was one of the main focuses of the movement. Harassment, wife-beating, rape, and â€Å"dowry deaths† were all too common, and police enforcement was ineffective as were most attempts at prosecution. Commonly called â€Å"atrocities against women†, these acts occurred frequently. Why then, if these events were happening so often, was there so much apathy towards them on the part of the courts and the police? To answer this question one must look back upon a history marked by religiously and culturally accepted forms of oppression such as female infanticide, polygamy, purdah and sati. Purdah, still practiced today in many Moslem societies, is the practice of covering a women in cloth to protect them from the gaze of non-family males, in order to maintain their purity. This practice became common in India in the days of the sultanate. From a traditional western perspective this is a very repressive requirement. Gandhi took a particular pleasure in bringing women out of purdah, and involving them in the political movements of the times. Sati is another story. Early British rule in India was careful to stay out of the traditions and private lives of the natives. They ruled indirectly, typically demanding monetary tribute from local leaders in exchange for allowing them to rule as they pleased. This philosophy changed dramatically under the governor-generalship of Lord William Cavendish Bentinck which began in 1828. He began a much more interventionist policy that included the an increase in transportation facilities, industrialized cloth production (which displaced the ancient commercial structure) and he abolished the ancient tradition of sati (female infanticide was also outlawed by the British). The last of which caused a great rift in India's intellectuals and businessmen. Sati is an ancient Hindu tradition whereby a widow is burned in the cremation fire of her departed husband. This practice was abhorred by British missionaries and businessmen. However, to many of India's intellectuals it was an act of bravery and dedication on the part of the widow, to be admired. This is evidenced by the first petition against the intervention, which stated, â€Å"Hindoo widows perform (sati), of their own accord and pleasure, and for the benefit of their Husbands' souls and for their own, the sacrifice of self-immolation called Suttee (another spelling of sati)- which is not merely a sacred duty but a high priviledge†(Stein, p. 22). For those who did not take part in this practice, the life of a Hindu widow was a very restricted one. A census conducted in 1881 showed that one-fifth of all women were widows, so these restrictions were very important. The Dharmashashra of Manu (a Hindu text) talks about how a Brahmin widow should act stating, â€Å"†¦ but she may never mention the name of another man after her husband has died. (Stein, p. 94) As child brides were common in the Subcontinent, one often saw young widows unable by traditional law to remarry and make an attempt at a new life. Furthermore, they rarely had the education to support themselves. Education was historically bestowed solely upon the males. In the 19th century only the wealthiest of families sought after any sort of formal education for their female children, and there was no movement in the government to change this. â€Å"A survey of Madras found over 5000 girls enrolled in Indian language schools, as against 179,000 boys†(Stein p. 268). This lack of concern for the formal education of women exemplifies how their place in society was viewed. The treatment of high cast women was one of the first forms of oppression attacked by advocates of women's rights. In the 1860's action was taken by avid social reformer Madhav Govinda Ranade, who founded the Widow Re-marriage Association and the Deccan Education Society (which sought to increase young women's educational facilities). Although Ranade challenged some of traditions that prevented the liberation of women, he was seen by many as a hypocrite, himself taking on a child bride after the death of his wife. Soon however women would take the reins in the battle for their own independence. A woman by the name of Ramabia is considered, â€Å"the first Indian Feminist to address other women directly about emancipation† (Stein, p. 275). She, like Ranade, was a member of the Brahman caste. She would go on to travel and study in England and later in America, where she wrote about the mistreatment of women in India. A converted Christian upon her return to India, Ramabia opened schools for high caste women. This effort, in conjunction with various projects Ramabia worked on for women, was far ahead of its time and it would take nearly a century before women would tightly bind together to formally resist oppression. Early in the 20th century women were forbidden to protest their condition or even to congregate to discuss the matter. This was a right even the lowest cast males, the untouchables, was bestowed. It was a common belief at the time, that free women would inevitably come to neglect their marital responsibilities. The Indian National Congress, led by Gandhi, was one of the first political organizations to actively include woman, even women formally in Purdah. Although these women mobilized formally in the name of nationalism, it was this extensive political activity that would become a catalyst for future self conscious feminism (a school of thought that was looked upon with great caution and fear). In 1917 the congress demanded that women be able to vote on the same basis as men, but these efforts to were for the progress of nationalism rather than exclusively for the improvement of women's rights. The eventual partition and independence of India was seen as a tremendous success for passive resistance and the Gandhian way. In the decades to come a number of political movements would emerge that would utilize various forms of civil disobedience as their main form of protest. There was intense and organized women's participation in these movements, as a result of their participation in the independence movement there was a clear precedent for this. In the 1960's India saw the effects of dramatically improved agricultural techniques resulting from the new technology of the ‘Green Revolution'. However, these benefits did not come without a cost. Although food was more plentiful, farmers not wealthy enough to keep up with the technology got left in the dust. As a result women toiling on the land found themselves worse off than ever before. There were also severe environmental implications of the sudden and extensive use of technology. In response a number of movements emerged. Within these movements (such as the Marxist, the Farmers, and the Environmental movements) unified groups of women emerged and took on unprecedented responsibility. They actively and enthusiastically sought after redistribution of land and wages. The first group to cross over and actively seek out women's liberation was an organization of â€Å"new Marxists† called Magowa. Starting in Maharashtra, which would become the center for liberation activity, they wrote their second publication on the, â€Å"varied facets of women's oppression in India†(Omvedt p. 76). The population base of this movement was the rural and the toiling. This was important because the women of this group were already organized, although not all of these organizations with this base turned their focus toward feminist causes. 1974 was a pivotal year for the movement. Not only did it see the founding of POW (the Progressive Organization of Women), but it was the year that the official Status of Women Commission published their report, Towards Equality, on women's low and ever decreasing status in Indian society. This paper would add much fuel to the impending fire and validate it to the mainstream population. There were large conferences in Pune and Trivandrum in 1975 on women's issues further bringing the movement into the mainstream. Many autonomous groups popped up with different agendas and issues. Some of the common issues included; the division of housework, party politics, rape, and â€Å"dowry deaths†. The issues of violence, popularly called â€Å"atrocities against women† became the centerpiece of the movement in the early eighties and the cause for its expansion. A forum against rape in Bombay led to the creation of the Forum Against Atrocities on Women, or the FAOW. All over India these feminist groups were emerging. There constituencies came to included women from all walks of life No longer did women simply motivate toward third party objectives, they now fought for their own rights as the largest oppressed group in the nation. From an unanswerable and most often unaddressed problem in the 1800's, to a hotly contested issue on the cutting edge of politics in modern times, the conflict over women's rights in India has come full circle in one century. Although feminist sentiments existed throughout, it took active female inclusion in the political world by Gandhi's independence movement to give their voices strength and to eventually have them heard. There was avid political activity on the part of women and female organizations leading up to the 1947 split. The effectiveness of this work foreshadowed the influence women could have on politics when working together, and paved the way for the modern women's movement that began in the 1970's. Unfortunately, even at the end of the eighties â€Å"atrocities against women† were still occurring and they continue to occur today, but the change in attitude and the end of apathy that has emerged over the last century surely gives promise that someday there could truly be equality for women in India, and the world over.

Friday, August 30, 2019

On the Want of Money

Robyn Sumibcay April 4, 2013 Period 5 Carvalho On the Want of Money It all dates back to ten thousand years ago when money became one of the world’s greatest obsessions. From bartering to coinage to paper, the want and need for money has never changed. In author William Hazlitt’s essay, On the Want of Money, he clearly describes how money can effectively make or break one’s life. He uses examples, syntax, diction, and tone to show that in a world without money a human being will experience the harshness of life.After stating his position that â€Å"one cannot get on well in the world without money. † author Hazlitt lists a variety of examples to show the outcome of one’s life if they were to live without money. He clearly states that without money your life will basically be miserable, and useless. He not only shares examples of how life would be without money, but also a little bit about how it would be WITH money. His long list of harsh examples a llows the reader to paint a picture of Hazlitt’s position.Considering that the whole essay consists of three sentences, the readers begin to feel overwhelmed. By overwhelming the reader, they’re able to get a sense of the burden they would feel if they were to live without money. The method of listing also makes readers see the endlessness of problems a person may over go. Listing examples of the way life would be without money makes the reader change their perspective of living â€Å"freely†. On the Want of Money is filled with harsh diction which creates a dreary tone for readers.Hazlitt uses a list of negative words such as, â€Å"despised†, â€Å"rejected†, â€Å"carped†, â€Å"disparaged†, â€Å"scrutinized†, â€Å"neglected†, â€Å"thrall†, â€Å"irksome†, â€Å"compelled†, â€Å"deprived†, â€Å"back-biting†, â€Å"disappointment†, and â€Å"burden† to emphasize the severe effects and harshness of being poor. By emphasizing in his essay, readers are able to realize the way their life would change dramatically if money were to be completely abolished from their lives. Harsh diction also helps express the endlessness of negative outcomes. Not only does harsh diction create negativity but also produces a dreary, unemotional-like tone.By creating a solemn tone, readers are then able to realize the appreciation they should have toward money. Diction and tone really has an effect on the readers because it helps them feel what it’s like without money, and creates an experience of being less fortunate. Money plays a major role in a human beings life because although it’s deniable, money can sometimes really be the answer to happiness. Without money, a person may end up living a hard, struggling life. No matter what form that money is in, a person should always carry it around to be able to get through the harshness and reality of life.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Aspect of the year 1968 contributed to it being a unique year in world Essay - 1

Aspect of the year 1968 contributed to it being a unique year in world history - Essay Example To achieve this, the essay shall rely on Mark Kurlansky’s book, â€Å"1968: The Year That Rocked the World,† and Selection from Lady Bird Johnson’s March 31, 1968 diary entry, concerning Johnson’s failure to run for re-election. Kurlansky (2005) argues that his decision had several and far reaching implications on the country and presidency. He was leaving a country that was deeply divided and facing unprecedented crisis both locally and abroad. His decision to give up when the nation needed leadership most surprised many. Kurlansky’s arguments are supported by Abbie Hoffman, who asserts that the decision came at a bad time when America had involved itself deeply in the Vietnam War under Johnson’ leadership, and had already generated a negative public opinion, both locally and globally. Kurlansky quotes Hoffman that â€Å"we were standing still. How could we pull our pants down? America was already naked. What could we disrupt? America was falling apart at the seams,’ (Kurlansky 229). This confirms the surprise of the Americans after the president’s decision. Kurlansky points to the division that had arisen in the country and especially in the Democratic Party because of the Vie tnam War. The president was facing stiff opposition from his own party while, ironically, it was the republicans who supported him on the war. The decision also came at a time when the American citizens and the soldiers at the battle front were becoming demoralized due to the losses they had encountered in Vietnamese battle fronts and the desire by the people to end the war. The president himself had foreseen the effect his resignation would have on the morale of the troops on the battle front. According to Lady Bird Johnson’s March 31, 1968 diary entry, the president had consulted General Westmoreland, who was in command of the troops, in the battle front, and who had assured him that it would have little impact. While dismissing a suggestion from his wife who had talked to

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The development and expansion of the logistics system in China's Research Proposal

The development and expansion of the logistics system in China's e-commerce market - comprehensive Impact assessment in the past decade - Research Proposal Example ch is to conduct a comprehensive impact assessment in the past decade of the development and expansion of the logistics system in China’s e-commerce market. This paper intends to explain why China’s e-commerce sector has grown at a very high rate in the past decade. In this study, the researcher will analyze the current situation of e-commerce development in China, and also figure out the obstacles faced by this sector. E-commerce in China has experienced tremendous growth in the past ten years. According to experts, this growth is largely attributed to the local environment in China. This paper intends to conduct a detailed analysis of this local environment. In addition, the researcher will introduce the current situation of e-commerce development in China and highlight the major challenges faced by this sector. In broader terms, the paper will conduct a comprehensive impact assessment in the past decade of the development and expansion of the logistics system in China’s e-commerce sector. The long term objective of this research is to analyze the development and expansion of the logistics system in China’s e-commerce sector. Particularly, the following are the sub-problems of this research: Studies have indicated demonstrated the importance of logistics in e-commerce. In any e-commerce business, there is need for support structures that would facilitate retail system. Nowadays businesses have moved away from traditional business models and have started accommodating new ways of conducting businesses (BARBOZA, 2015). Technically, in conventional retailing supply chain, the responsibility of purchasing goods lay in the hands of customers (Martin, 2014). The customers in this case travel to the stores to access products and services, and the retailers only provide the services of transportation of goods when the products are bulky. As noted in a study by Rodrigue, (2015), location is very important in retailing and retailers are often faced with the

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

American history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 3

American history - Essay Example The Progressive Era witnessed the appearance of reformers known by the name progressives whose objective was to knock down the devils of inequalities in the nation (Roosevelt). With the target of highlighting democratic principles and social justice, the progressives made efforts to lay the pillar for a â€Å"new† America with liberty, equality and power (Roosevelt). These progressives emerging from a tradition of middle-class elites possessed a great sense of social responsibility for the underprivileged class (Roosevelt). In the view of Eleanor Roosevelt who belonged to this social class, â€Å"In that society you were kind to the poor, you did not neglect your philanthropic duties, you assisted the hospitals and did something for the needy.† (Roosevelt). The demand put forward by the progressives started gaining recognition from farmers to politicians as it went on expanding from social service to journalism (Roosevelt). Such was the outcome of the endeavors that even president, Theodore Roosevelt mentioned: â€Å"No hard-and-fast rule can be laid down as to the way in which such work [reform] must be done; but most certainly every man, whatever his position, should strive to do it in some way and to some degree.† (Roosevelt). This was supported with Roosevelt’s resolution to discourage the laissez-faire approach and to hold up labor of 1902’s Anthracite Coal Strike settlement (Roosevelt). In the Progressive Era, ladies such as Jane Addams and Lillian Wald shouldered the social duties of updating the immigrant sections and steering them towards the right ways of life and moral values (Roosevelt). This had some influence on the woman and child labor laws, welfare benefits and factory inspection legislation (Roosevelt). However, the exertions of these female reformers simply added to the bosses’ recognition (Roosevelt). Another group of progressives were â€Å"muckraking† journalists like Jacob Riis, whose work How

Monday, August 26, 2019

Geomorphology Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Geomorphology - Lab Report Example (5 pts) The critical angle for determining whether the boulder would move, or not is 45.840 degrees. At this point, the boulder would assume a stationery motion. The value is arrived by observing the point of intersection between the curves of shear and normal stress. 4. A local business informs you they have a 1 m-thick rock slab with a density of 1000 kg m-3 lying in their backyard that slopes at 25 degrees. Given normal weather conditions and unsaturated soils, will this rock slide and potentially destroy their business? Justify your answer in terms of angle, Driving and Resisting forces. (5 pts) At 25 degrees, the sheer force on the rock will be 984.807753 while the normal stress will be 173.6481777 (in the opposite direction). This means that the forces propelling the rock slab downwards are greater than the resisting forces. Assuming that the weather conditions remain at normal levels it is highly likely that the rock in question will inflict a considerable damage to the surrounding property. Lemke, Karen A. â€Å"Slope Stability & Mass Wasting.† University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, December 1, 2013. Web. January 26, 2015 < http://www4.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Marketing Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 4

Marketing - Case Study Example Several brands have registered success in the social media usage. Currently, social media usage must be employed to meet the younger generation. Marketing of products using online tools has increased sales volume because the clients employ online purchase of items. Apart from employing the online tools, social media have a massive impact on the success of the country both in business and politics. The Arab revolution is a product of social media usage in the airing of the grievances of the citizens. Facebook is the leading social media platform with massive subscribers and increased success in terms of usage. Facebook as a social media tool enjoys massive support from the youths who have employed it in communication and information transfer. Companies use social media marketing strategy to improve brand image and resonance (Beverly and Thomson 123). Marketing involves the employment of all the necessary platforms of promotion and advertising with the SNSs offering a better platform for communication. Social media platforms offer the opportunity for collection of feedback. Traditionally, feedback collection of products released in the market was hard to obtain owing to the nature of information sharing systems. However, with the introduction of social media platform companies are able to prepare the market for the introduction of new product, while also collecting the customer preferences about the product. The success of products in the current society has been pegged on the marketing plan and action employed by the company (Beverly and Thomson 145). Public relations use social media to improve product perception and facilitate the development of positivity towards the company. Social media can be employed both in communication and persuasive advertising with enormous success. Facebook, MySpace and Twitter, are some of the widely used social media platforms

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Nostalgia and the frontier Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Nostalgia and the frontier - Assignment Example Since it introduced new changes into he society, it was fiercely opposed by the native populations. Meaning, it sparked a violent resistance from the natives who were threatened by the coming of these colonialists into their land. Such a version can appeal most to the scout who perceive America to be built from violent resistances. Initially, Americans were democratic people who believed in equality, peace and social order. This is the view of Turner in his highly regarded Frontier thesis in which he says that the Native American populations were peace-loving. At the same time, they were egalitarians who did not entertain selfishness, but believed in the sharing of resources amongst themselves. This was seen in the manner in which they managed land resources. In fact, it is because of this that the native Indian Americans believed in the free land system. After all, there was a vast land with numerous resources to exploit making it unnecessary for these natives to scramble for them. However, when the land was invaded by the colonialists, all these changed as a new social order was established. After the signing of numerous with the Europeans, the natives would soon find out that life would never be the same. As demonstrated by Buffalo Bill, violence had to erupt because the invasion opened a new frontier to the Indian Americans whose life had been confined within their geographical area. So, unlike before, they would be exposed to the western community and the rest of the world thus influencing them a great deal. Apart from introducing new economic systems, the frontier led to the establishment of the states. These were totally new developments that had to be defended. All in all, the ideas expressed by the boy scouts, Buffalo Bill Wild West shows and Westerns demonstrate that the frontier was indeed a new development that marked a big turning point in the lives of the Indian Americans. If it were not for it, these natives

Friday, August 23, 2019

Writing Skills Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Writing Skills - Essay Example The article shows another problem - Germany’s population is still dwindling because old people are its majority. This has affected the production output of the country. The future seems bleak and thus, an urgent action is needed to salvage this predicament. Germany needs to employ a policy that will enhance immigration. In addition, it needs to implement integration measures like those found in other nations such as the U.S.A. As a fact, changes are inevitable and they occur in all cultures. The acceptance of friendly immigration rules by Germany will make it handle the problem of age difference among its population. The article talks about Brazilian immigrants who have been sending back to their native country. It is highlighted that they have been offered air tickets home and not expected to come back to Japan. Japan faces a high immigration rate, especially from Brazil. As a way of sustaining its economy, it had allowed the immigrants to come to the country and offered them jobs. However, the pressure has become too much and unemployment rates have risen. As a way of curbing this, it has opted to send the Brazil immigrants back to their country (Masters, 2009). Japan needs to come up with well defined migration laws in order to curb the high immigration rate. The country requires not sending the Brazilians back to their native country as they help in sustaining its economy. Instead, Japan has to look for other opportunities that will help in curbing the rising unemployment rates. It should encourage its population to be self-employed as well as educate its younger generation. In this way, the Brazilians who are already in the country would not feel

Thought Pieces Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Thought Pieces - Assignment Example Drones have been in used for quite sometimes. Although at the time, they were used solely by the military to spy on rivals in the war field. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles has expanded since then. This is highly attributed to the advancement of technology. Nagelhout, (2013), says that many people are coming up with new and innovative ideas. With each passing day, better machines are being unveiled. It is startling to imagine how much the drones could do. It may even be scary to believe that such innovations could be used to harm people, or to spy on them. Drones carry cameras and can record things taking place. They can even go unnoticed, which makes it scarier. The 21st century is full of innovations, and there is so much to expect. An example of a company that is thinking about using drones is Amazon, which is in the process of experimenting with delivery of packages. Nardo, (2014), says that the drones will be able to deliver within a radius of ten miles, and they are expected to do so in about thirty minutes. This will be a significant boost to the business. What is being debated is that if the drones are allowed to do the delivery, and then what will people do? It means that the workload of the workers will be reduced, and many may even be laid off. Although it is a good idea that saves time and is very attractive to the customers, many considerations have to be made. With the rate in which new technology is being manifested, Nardo, (2014) adds that the future holds so much more. Other than all those uses named above, in the future I know that drones will be able to carry out more than just the simple tasks of delivering small packages. I see a future where unmanned aerial vehicles will be bigger in size and will be able to carry more weight. Drones will have new designs that are both appealing to look at and will have more power, higher speed and more accuracy. With a touch of a button, the machines will be smart enough to do carry out the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Knowing Your Audience Paper Essay Example for Free

Knowing Your Audience Paper Essay Most people would never want to imagine themselves or a family member being trapped under ground for even one day but the victims of those who were trapped under the Chilean copper mine had to consider not one day but even two months. According to The New York Times Company(2014), â€Å"On Aug. 5, 2010, a gold and copper mine near the northern city of Copiapà ³, Chile caved in, trapping 33 miners in a chamber about 2,300 feet below the surface†. At this time no one knew the well being or the nature of the situation that happened at the copper mine. During this time communication between employers, families’ members’ involved, trapped miners and those set in place to find a solution to this problem was very vital. Some things to keep in mind when considering roles and audiences is to determine what information to give and how it should be expressed or conveyed to the audience. For example, if you’re giving direct and urgent information, you wouldn’t send this type of information over an email, it would be more appropriate to say it face to face. It is important to consider how much does the audience know about the topic or subject you are sharing at that time. In the situation with the trapped miners the potential needs that should be considered and expressed to the families of the trapped miners would be first addressing what happened. This information should be given directly, face to face, to all family members involved. It is important to give the family as much detail about the incident as possible but not so much that it makes them alarmed and upset. Also another thing to add is the condition or well being of the trapped miners. If the information isn’t available its best to let them know although there isn’t much information at this time, but as soon as the information is available, they will be first to know. Also the last need that the family members affected by this incident would need is to understand and know what the employers and team of experts are doing to find a solution to the problem and how often can they know the extent and whereabouts of the situation. At this point after meeting the potential needs of the families involved, it’s also important to understand and know the potential needs of the company’s employees. Although they may not be the family members or those who are actually trapped at that moment, they also play a vital role. Some potential needs for the company’s employees would be to communicate effectively. Although the situation itself must have been very tragic if there was effective communication, there would be no way for  the employees at that time to help save those trapped. Also another need that needs to be met would be extra training and understanding of what took place, where it went wrong, and how to fix the problem. Without the employees having a plan or strategy of how they could effectively resolve or help the situation it could cause retaliation or resentment. After the message about the incident, and the actions or plan that is put in place has been verified and delivered to all important parties and involved it’s important that all those involved are able to convey what they heard and understood before and after the message is given. To make sure the message was received as properly and effectively you have to consider each audience which would be the trapped miners, employees and families. The message given to each party cannot be given the same. Also the channel has to be considered, again in this situation you wouldn’t send this information through an email or memo, this information that has to be conveyed face to face. It is also good to give information based on the listener’s level of understanding and to talk with the parties that involve a way opening up the way for cooperation and in this situation it would be much needed. An effective communication as the mining company to the family members of the trapped miners would be face to face. During this time the mining company would say with sincerity and clarity that â€Å" At this time we are deeply sorry to announce that we have understood and learned that on Aug. 5, 2010, a gold and copper mine near the northern city of Copiapà ³, caved in, trapping 33 miners in a chamber about 2,300 feet below the ground. At this time we aren’t certain what exactly caused the cave in and we aren’t certain the condition of the miners at this time. We will be working around the clock to get more information about the well being of the trapped miners. Also at this moment there will be specialist and experts going to the scene to analyze and inspect the situation at hand. After further observation of the experts then will we know what plan will be put in place to rescue our fellow employees. As soon as we are made aware of the plan we will let you know. We hope that we can all work together effectively which much understanding and cooperation from us and you so that we can bring your family members back to you.† Also an effective communication between the mining company and the employees would be a face to face channel. At that time the company would express, â€Å"I’m sad to announce to you that our fellow  employees have been caved in a chamber about 2,300 feet below the ground in the northern city of Copiapà ³. There are 33 at this time trapped and waiting to be rescued. We aren’t sure of the condition of the each employee but we all hope that we can all come together to help the best way we can to make sure that those who are trapped are in good condition. Although we never plan for anything like this to take place but unfortunately we have to use the way we were trained to assess the situation. At this time along with yourself the family members of the trapped miners are already being informed. Please let’s not alarm the families with information that has not been given or confirmed. Our main mission is to stay calm, offer up many prayers and work together in unity. During this time we will be working around the clock to help as much as we can and the company will provide meals, clean working clothes and a place to sleep. However you think you can help or what will better the situation please send your requests or opinions to us directly. Thank you so much for your cooperati on in help.†

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Gaining And Maintaining Airworthiness Engineering Essay

Gaining And Maintaining Airworthiness Engineering Essay Aircraft design process involved in varied disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures, flight mechanics etc. Therefore, for an aircraft to become operational it is essential to demonstrate that the construction and design of the aircraft can comply with the requirements applicable and such verification and validation evidence required to be delegated to the relevant authorities. This report introduces Airworthiness and provides the reader the framework involved in gaining airworthiness and how to maintain it subsequently. Introduction Consideration of airworthiness policies has its origins since the early days of military flying. But aircraft design data has been recorded prior to 1910 for balloons and the Royal Aircraft Factory has produced a design requirement document in 1916. The Aerial Navigation Act that is sanction by the Home Office in 1911 to ban flying in populated areas is an early example of safety regulation. Airworthiness Department has been established decade later by the Royal Aircraft Factory (as part of the Air Ministry), which is the beginning of procedures for company design approvals and approved data. Aircraft airworthiness means compliance with applicable aviation authorities regulations that defines the minimum safety level of the aircraft, of the passengers transported and the over flown territories. When designed and built according to applicable requirements, When operated within its intended environment and within its quantified and declared limitations, And maintained in accordance with procedures acceptable to the responsible Authority. The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Regulation 216/2008, Article 5, 2(c) defines the airworthiness as; Each aircraft shall be issued with an individual certificate of airworthiness when it is shown that it conforms to the type design approved in its type-certificate and that relevant documentation, inspections and tests demonstrate the aircraft is in condition for safe operation The Airworthiness is a collective responsibility of operators, authorities, manufactures and maintenance organisations. An airworthy aircraft is one where the likelihood of any incident or accident as a result of malfunction, performance or handling of the aircraft is kept to acceptable levels. The only real measure of airworthiness in use is given by tracking and analyzing incidents and accidents. The remaining sections will discuss the essence of Gaining and Maintaining Airworthiness. Figure 01: Airworthiness Collective Responsibilities Implementation of Airworthiness Authority (EASA) confidence that the design of a product complies with the applicable requirements based on Certification of the organisation (IR 21 DOA) Certification of the design of products (CS 25 TC) DO Approval According to European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), Design Organisation Approval (DOA) requirements Implementing Rule (IR) part 21 (published as annex to European Commission Regulation (EC) No 1702/2003) includes procedural requirements applicable either to the industry (Section A) or to the Competent Authorities (Section B) but Part 21 does not include provisions to delegate EASA authority and / or signature to individuals. Certification of aircraft and related products, parts and appliances, and of design and production organisations Organisations must demonstrate following key elements in order to obtain DO Approval. Design Assurance System Handbook Right People Terms of Approval Obligations of the holder Figure 02 DOA Key Elements Design Organisation Approval (DOA) Organisation Structure Following diagram illustrates a simplified organisation structure demonstrating the essential elements in an aircraft design and manufacturing organisation. Figure 03: Design Organisation Structure Chief Executive Officer (CEO): Responsible for appropriate functioning of the work place by ensuring availability of required resources. Designated Certification Specialist (DCS): Airworthiness specialist nominated for a given discipline (ATA or Sub-ATA level or for Approved Manuals) to carry out the certification tasks, in particular to manage the compliance demonstration activities for their domain. Part of the airworthiness function and act under the control of Product Integrity. Certification Manager (CM) Certification panel leaders for their area of competence, Participate in the development of new certification strategies The CM is the interface with Aviation Authorities at panel level for primary TC, foreign certification / validation activities and for allocated major changes. Chief Airworthiness Engineer (CAE) Responsible for leading and coordinating the certification and airworthiness activities for the programme. Supported by a team usually called the CAE team composed of: A Type Certification Manger (TCM) An Individual Aircraft Certification Manager (IACM) A Continued Airworthiness Manager (CAM) Type Certification Type certification is the process demonstrating that the design of an aircraft complies with the applicable aviation requirements. Certification process could be a new type certificate new aircraft (ex. Airbus A380), Amended Type certification model or derivative (ex: Airbus A350 1000) and significant major changes to the type design (ex. A330-200 Passenger to Freighter) To grant and EASA Type Certificate, aircraft manufacture shall obtain first a DOA (Design Organisation Approval) covering the relevant product (aircraft type) and also shall demonstrate its capability to design, certify and ensure the continued airworthiness of its products in accordance with the certification specification (CS-25) and Environmental protection (CS-34, CS-36) requirements. To manufacture and release to service series aircraft, manufacture must then obtain a POA (Production Organisation Approval) and establish relationship between DOA POA. Flight Test Flight testing process could be potentially very risky and extremely expensive due to unforeseen problem s result in loss of life (both crew and people on the ground) and damage to the aircraft. Due to this reasons modern flight testing is one of the most safety conscious operations. Typically there are two types of flight test programs, military and commercial. There is a significant difference between military and commercial flight testing where commercial test programs are carried out to certify the aircraft meets all required safety and performance requirements where as military programs involved in aircraft manufactures designing and building aircraft to government contracts to meet specific mission capabilities. Initiation of flight test preparations for both commercial and military aircraft commence well before the aircraft is ready to fly, although due to the fact that the government is funding the military projects, involvement of military flight testing is commence much ear ly-on in the design and testing process. Historical Data Analysis According to historical evidence, operational and airframe related risk of a serious accident causes is approximately one per million flight hours but failure problems occurred by aircraft systems problems is about 10 percent of this total amount. Therefore, it is reasonable to argue that systems faults should not allowed serious accidents and it is therefore possible for a new design to change the probability of such a serious accident not to be greater than one per ten million flight hours (1 x 10-7). But it is not possible to identify whether the target can be met until all the aircraft systems has been numerically collectively analysed. Due to this reason its assumed that there are about 100 potential failure conditions present arbitrarily which could prevent safe flight and landing of the aircraft. By sharing out equally the target allowable risk (x 10-7) equally among these conditions risk allocation result in not greater than 1 x 10-9 to each. Therefore the upper risk limit for failure conditions would be 1 x 10-9 for each hour of flight which approximates probability value for the term Extremely Improbable. Analytic techniques Various analytical techniques have been developed in line with the above topic to assist Airworthiness Authority and the applicant to carry out a safety analysis, which could benefit systematic qualitative analysis. This technique also important for analyst to perform quantitative assessment when required. The Advisory Material Joint (AMJ) identifies both qualitative and quantitative analytical approaches which could used to support JAA personal or assist applicant to determine the compliance with the requirement. And it also provides guidance for determining if or when a particular analysis to be conducted. The intended requirement of the analytical tools is supplement but not to replace operational and engineering judgement. Legal Issues To have a basic understanding of the legal requirement is vital for aviation professionals such as pilots, mechanics, air traffic controllers and executives. National and international laws or regulations regulate all aspects of civil air transportation. To ensure the effectiveness of the legal framework and enforceability of safety aspects, the following basic groups of regulations have been developed. Airworthiness Regulations to define: Applicable procedures, and Minimum safety, technical and performance requirements to be realised and maintain in the aircraft design. Ex: EASA Part 21 (aircraft certification procedures), Part M and Part 145 (aircraft maintenance) CS-25 (design code for large aircraft) Operational regulations: to define the basic rules air traffic has to follow and the minimum requirements for certain kinds of operations, for the aircraft and the person or the organisation. Ex: EU-OPS1 Commercial Air Transportation After an accident there is two main investigations (technical legal proceedings) will be conducted. Legal proceedings consist with; Civil proceedings which involved in civil claims for damages by victims and/or their relatives, Commercial proceedings which involved in claims for damages by customer and/or its insurer (Aircraft repair / loss, Reduction in aircraft residual value, Loss of revenue) and finally Criminal prosecution, in case of death / serious injury, in certain jurisdictions (ex: France, Germany). Continued Airworthiness According to ICAO Doc No 9760-2001 continued Airworthiness defined as The processes that ensure, at any time in its life, an aircraft complies with the technical conditions fixed to the issue of the Certificate of Airworthiness and is in a condition for safe operation. And recommends Contracting states are required to have a system that ensures aircraft are in a condition for safe operation. F. Florio (2006) stated that safety is the most important thing which has to be ensuring every time in every flight operations and all the airplanes must be in an air worthy state which is suitable for fly. In other words all the aircrafts must achieve and perform all the procedures in the Airworthiness Directive manuals. Furthermore, Florio (2006) also mentioned that continued airworthiness can be rely on two factors Organisation operators Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance can be explained as alterations, inspections, replacements of parts of the aircraft. This can be done by taking a record entry for each event such as replacement of LRUs (Line replacement units). According to Florio (2006), Maintenance refers to as preventive maintenance, alterations and repairs and introduction of airworthiness directive and also he stated that airworthiness is rely on the maintenance programmes , which also establish the replacement of time change items , the overhaul engines, propellers and various parts of appliances. Florio mentioned that as the part of the product type certifications of aircraft airworthiness authorities requires instructions for continued airworthiness thus these instructions can be identified as the fundamental tools of the maintenance because they are the basic maintenance programmes. These maintenance programmes must cater the requirements of operational and maintenance standards. According to EASA Maintenance programme; Every aircraft shall be maintained in accordance with the maintenance programmes approved by the competent authority, which shall be periodically reviewed and amended accordingly. The maintenance programme and any subsequent amendments shall be approved by the competent authority The maintenance programmes must establish compliance with; Instructions for continuing airworthiness issued by the type certificate and the supplementary type certificate holder Instructions issued by the complement authority Instructions issued by the owner or the operator and approved by the competent authority. Repairs Repair process involves different organisations where, when the products are not with aircraft manufacture, continuing airworthiness is governed by the state of registry or the responsibilities are spread out in organisations. Part 21A subpart M states the repair procedural requirements for certification. Under Part 21 subpart M: Elimination of damage (21A.431 b) Unrepaired damages (21A.445 a) Out of Part 21 subpart M Replacement without design activity (21A.431c) Repairs design from an approved manual (GM 21A.431 a) Following diagrams illustrates the Airbus repairing process. Figure 04: Airbus Repairing Process The Structure Repair Manual (SRM) describes general repair practices, materials and typical repairs, allowed damages, which are considered applicable to standard repairs. Its approved by aircraft manufacture under DOR privilege. Modifications Changes made to a particular aircraft after the issue of the airworthiness certificate is a modification. This could include changes to the structures, systems, powerplants, propellers etc Furthermore, substitution of one type for another also considered as a modification. Any modification requires approval from the Civil Aviation Authority directly or via an approved organisation. During a design modification, details of the change must be given to the authority at early stage where then the modification is classified as minor or major medication according to the nature of the investigation. If the outcome of an investigation requires amendments to the Certificate of Airworthiness or Flight Manual, authority may require following major modification procedures. Incidents and Accidents Flight safety experts believe that series of events leads to incidents and accidents. Accidents During the operation of an aircraft, result in occurrence associated with a person being fatally or seriously injured from the time any person boards to the aircraft with intention of flight until the time all persons disembarked. Incidents Other than accidents incidents also occurrences which relate to the operation of the aircraft or could affect the safety of its operation. Aging Aircraft Civil Aviation authority has defined Aging aircrafts as An operational aircraft approaching the end of its design life assumptions (Alder P. 2005). Aging aircraft can also be called as an older aircraft as well. Since the aircraft are manufacture to provide long lasting services for so many years, all the aircraft must be in an airworthy state and have to be safe to fly. Thus maintenance programmes must be carried out to maintain the aircraft and also aircraft must be operated according to the manufacturers recommendation. Florio F. (2006) stated that, older aircraft require additional care and the maintenance programmes must be carried out in a more specific way than the recently manufactured aircraft. And also he stated that due to the fatigue, accidental damage and also due to the environmental deterioration more inspection in the components of the structure must require in maintenance programmes. So to maintain airworthiness in older aircrafts manufacturers of the flight has to provide operators with the specific programs. In older aircrafts normally each of the aeroplane components have to undergo some of the repairs, overhauls, inspection maintenance, preventive maintenance and some replacements of components of the aircraft. Maintenance records have to be update regularly by the operator. Florio F. (2006) states that between operator of the aircraft, manufacturer and also the authority there should be an open communication system. Furthermore he states that once a problem occur the operator or the owner of the aircraft must inform it to the manufacturer and then manufacturer has to prepare the recommendations and has to update the appropriate programmes of continued air worthiness. After examination of those maintenance programmes the authorities will approve those. Role of the Regulator Airworthiness programmes consist of three main roles. Regulator Implementer Investigator Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) are examples for the regulation authorities. These authorities generate and distribute the regulations for aircraft operations for aviation industry. Civil Aviation Authority is the UKs independent specialist regulator. Their main responsibility is to provide world leading air safety environment in the aviation industry. Aircraft licensing, maintenance of specific airworthiness management systems and economic regulations, consumer protection, policies for airspace and setting up national safety standards can be taken as key role of CAA. Regulators involved in few or many roles as follows: Setting up the civil aviation standards and ensure they are achieved. Regulates and encourages airlines, airports and national air traffic services economic activities etc Manages the principal travel protection scheme. Ensure the airspace is a common place for all users by bringing civil and military interests together. Advise the government on aviation issues. Represents consumer interests Conduct scientific and economic research. Provide specialist services by producing statistical data. Conclusion Recommendation Aircraft airworthiness means compliance with applicable aviation authorities regulations that defines the minimum safety level of the aircraft, of the passengers transported and the over flown territories and when designed and built according to applicable requirements, when operated within its intended environment and within its quantified and declared limitations and maintained in accordance with procedures acceptable to the responsible Authority. Therefore, The Airworthiness is a collective responsibility of operators, authorities, manufactures and maintenance organisations.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Water Filtration And Purification And Its Effects Environmental Sciences Essay

Water Filtration And Purification And Its Effects Environmental Sciences Essay Filtering and Purifying water, before you drink it, has now become a crucial part of living in a rapidly growing, economically expanding world. In todays society water is reused over and over again. Not only to recycle but to produce enough to sustain people in their everyday lives. The process of filtration makes our water clean by removing visible and non-visible particles. The process of purification makes the water safe and clean to drink. Taking these processes seriously can keep you and the people around you safe and free of harmful substances found in water. A ten step quality process of filtering spring water begins by: Selecting a source and monitoring the water you chose (Arrowhead 7). Some drinking water such as Arrowhead source is a natural spring source (Arrowhead 7). The selection of springs is based on the natural composition, lack of bacteria, availability, and taste (Arrowhead 7). Especially trained geologists and hydrologists monitor the springs on a regular schedule at the place of the source. (Arrowhead 7). Sourcing the water receiving and monitoring the source (Arrowhead 7). Receiving the source water can be as much of a challenge and discovering the source. By following simple steps the water we buy and drink gets to the site in order to begin the filtration process. Spring water is transported by food-grade pipelines, or often by clean stainless steel tanker trucks. Which eventually go directly to the water filter plants (Arrowhead 7). Filters called One-micron filters remove sand and/or other particles that are partially visible or present in the water(Arrowhead 7). The Storage of water (Arrowhead 7) This temporary state of storing the water is done in food-grade storage tanks (Arrowhead8). The water in the tanks is tested (Arrowhead 8). Micro-Filtering the spring water (Arrowhead 8). Two-stage, micro-filters, filter the raw spring water collected from the source (Arrowhead 8). These filters are created to filter out particles and tiny as 0.2 micron in diameter (Arrowhead 8). The Ultraviolent light and Ozone disinfection stage (Arrowhead 8). The Ultraviolent process removes non-visible bacteria (Arrowhead 8). The Micro-filtration is like a second step that adds to the removal of bacteria (Arrowhead 8). Another filtration system called the HydRO-7 process is used by Aquafina Inc. Unlike companies that use spring water Aquafina reuses public water. Here are the 7 simple steps enabling a public water source to be safe and clean to drink. Step One: Removes particles with Pre-filtration. Step Two: Seizes even smaller particles. Step Three: Removes organic matter by UV. Step Four: Removes solid minerals by using reverse osmosis. Step Five: Sets apart trace elements by using an Activated Carbon Filter. Step Six: Makes the water very clear by using a Polishing Filter. Step Seven: the final purification stage is done in an Ozonized Water Tank and the Ozone Generator. (I received all of the information in the past paragraph from (http://www.aquafina.com/) Other water products similar to Arrowhead and Aquafina all have to follow the required statement under California law. These laws determine what waters are safe and what departments are allowed to develop and sell bottled water. Water in California is produced and used from sources such as; lakes, rivers, streams, reservoirs, ponds, wells, and springs. Often water that has traveled through the earth picks up natural elements, and substances that are found due to human and animals natural activities such as pollution (Arrowhead 23). Benefits following the filtration and purification process done by companies such as Suburban Water Systems include; the removal of dangerous elements such as Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Chromium, Fluoride, Lead, Mercury, Nitrates, and Radium. These elements are removed by an advance process of reverse osmosis. Other assets include; improvement in taste, bathing water, laundry, dishwashing, cleansing water, and maintenance as well (www.subwater.com). Filtering and purifying your water is a basic survival skill too. One basic rule of wilderness survival is; filter + purify = safe to drink. So if you are ever caught in a situation of survival remember this rule. (Bryan 1) The Earth has a system that has been around since the beginning of time, we know it as the Water Cycle. All of the earths features (including us) depend on the Water Cycle. It explains why the earth never runs out of water and only changes state or form (Usborne 51). But society today has damaged this system by polluting the land, sea, and air. Causing much of the pure water to be used and polluted. We use so many chemicals and man-made systems to make the water safe to drink. It makes you wonder whether or not this water is truly safe to be used (Usborne 51). Different types of water found in the U.S. include; Bottled water which refers to any type of water being contained in a sealed container primarily for domestic use by humans. Vended Water, meaning that it has not undergone the same advanced treatment as bottled water and is dispensed through a public water facility. Both are the two forms of clean water available in California. Each is protected under the CDPH or California Department of Public Health (www.cdph.ca.gov). When survival skills are needed finding water can be a challenge. Dehydration is a common result of lack of healthy water, leading most of the time to serious medical conditions. Make sure to note that if you are ever caught in a challenging situation in search of water that you check your source and make sure it is safe and clean to drink. Contaminated water is sometimes easily noticed if you look for obvious signs; turbidity (cloudiness of water), pesticides, fertilizers (from agricultural land nearby), and a more noticed pest called Giardia Lambia. When looking for water along a trail or when camping use your map. Most maps show any sources of water these maps are called Topo maps (Wilderness-suvival-skills.com). Water is a basic part of living. Making sure your water is clean is the first step in staying healthy. Since majority of our water is recycled we should make sure we know what types are best. Purifying water is just as necessary as filtering it, if not even more important. Purifying water is done in order to clean the water of non-visible elements. In doing this you make the water clear and able to be digested safely into our bodies. Purifying is done in water plants as mentioned before. But if you find yourself in a situation in need of water you must filter and purify it yourself. When or if this problem ever arises you must filter your water using available items and then boil the water. This makes the water somewhat clean and safe to drink. Thanks to advancements in our ways of cleaning our water, we now have clean safe water for our use at the turn of a nob. When using water we should make sure we use it wisely and are cautious to the harmful pollution in water outside. So when outdoors drink out of a water bottle and dont drink out of the stream†¦ But if found without a clean water at hand remember filter + purify=safe to drink!

Monday, August 19, 2019

Important Role of Women in Homers Odyssey Essay example -- The Role o

   For the Greeks, Homer's Odyssey was much more than just an entertaining tale of gods, monsters, and men, it served as cultural paradigm from which every important role and relationship could be defined.   This book, much more so than its counter part The Iliad, gives an eclectic view of the Achean's peacetime civilization.   Through Odyssey, we gain an understanding of what is proper or improper in relationships between father and son, god and mortal, servant and master, guest and host, and--importantly--man and woman.   Women play a vital role in the movement of this narrative.   Unlike in The Iliad, where they are chiefly prizes to be won, bereft of identity, the women of Odyssey are unique in their personality, intentions, and relationship towards men.   Yet, despite the fact that no two women in this epic are alike, each--through her vices or virtues-- helps to delineate the role of the ideal woman.   Below, we will show the importance of Circe, Calypso, Nausicaa, Cly taemestra, and Penelope in terms of the movement of the narrative and in defining social roles for the Ancient Greeks. Before we delve into the traits of individual characters, it is important to understand certain assumptions about women that prevailed in the Homeric Age.   By modern standards, the Ancient Greeks would be considered a rabidly misogynistic culture.   Indeed, the notoriously sour Boetian playwright Hesiod-- who wrote about fifty years before Homer-- proclaimed "Zeus who thunders on high made women to be an evil to mortal men, with a nature to do evil (Theogony 600)."   While this view may have been extreme even for the Greeks, they were convinced of the physical and intellectual inferiority of women.   Thus, they believed that it was better for all--... ...ocial structure of a defunct culture that was just as complex, if not more complex, than our own.   It defined and sustained Greek society for hundreds of years; much like the Bible once did in Christian nations.   Yet, despite its archaic nature, The Odyssey remains fresh two and a half millennia after its conception.   Homer's world has woven the fantastic together with the ordinary in such a way that it will never fall apart.   In a significant sense, The Odyssey is immortal.    Works Cited: Fagles, Robert. The Odyssey.   New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1996. Katz, Marilyn.   Penelope's Renown. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991 Hesiod.   "Theogony."   Perseus. Web. 24 Mar. 2015 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0130 Morford, Mark.   Classical Mythology.   5th edition. White Plains, NY: Logman, 1995.    Important Role of Women in Homer's Odyssey Essay example -- The Role o    For the Greeks, Homer's Odyssey was much more than just an entertaining tale of gods, monsters, and men, it served as cultural paradigm from which every important role and relationship could be defined.   This book, much more so than its counter part The Iliad, gives an eclectic view of the Achean's peacetime civilization.   Through Odyssey, we gain an understanding of what is proper or improper in relationships between father and son, god and mortal, servant and master, guest and host, and--importantly--man and woman.   Women play a vital role in the movement of this narrative.   Unlike in The Iliad, where they are chiefly prizes to be won, bereft of identity, the women of Odyssey are unique in their personality, intentions, and relationship towards men.   Yet, despite the fact that no two women in this epic are alike, each--through her vices or virtues-- helps to delineate the role of the ideal woman.   Below, we will show the importance of Circe, Calypso, Nausicaa, Cly taemestra, and Penelope in terms of the movement of the narrative and in defining social roles for the Ancient Greeks. Before we delve into the traits of individual characters, it is important to understand certain assumptions about women that prevailed in the Homeric Age.   By modern standards, the Ancient Greeks would be considered a rabidly misogynistic culture.   Indeed, the notoriously sour Boetian playwright Hesiod-- who wrote about fifty years before Homer-- proclaimed "Zeus who thunders on high made women to be an evil to mortal men, with a nature to do evil (Theogony 600)."   While this view may have been extreme even for the Greeks, they were convinced of the physical and intellectual inferiority of women.   Thus, they believed that it was better for all--... ...ocial structure of a defunct culture that was just as complex, if not more complex, than our own.   It defined and sustained Greek society for hundreds of years; much like the Bible once did in Christian nations.   Yet, despite its archaic nature, The Odyssey remains fresh two and a half millennia after its conception.   Homer's world has woven the fantastic together with the ordinary in such a way that it will never fall apart.   In a significant sense, The Odyssey is immortal.    Works Cited: Fagles, Robert. The Odyssey.   New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1996. Katz, Marilyn.   Penelope's Renown. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991 Hesiod.   "Theogony."   Perseus. Web. 24 Mar. 2015 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0130 Morford, Mark.   Classical Mythology.   5th edition. White Plains, NY: Logman, 1995.   

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Oklahoma Essay example -- essays research papers

Show: Oklahoma  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Date: 1930’s (Movie 1950’s) Music by: Richard Rodgers  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Book by: Oscar Hammerstein II Lyrics by: Oscar Hammerstein II  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Choreography by: Agnes de Mille Location and time of story: 1930’s Oklahoma  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Principal Characters: Curly – tenor Laurey – Soprano Ali Hakim – Speaking part Jud Fry – Baritone Will Parker – Tenor Aunt Eller – Alto Ado Annie Carnes – Alto Secondary Characters: Mr. Skidmore – speaking part/tenor All singing, dancing, and speaking part extras Main Songs and/or Dances:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Title  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Performed by character(s) Overture  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Orchestra  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin’†Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ...

Gender And Relationship Of Children :: essays research papers

Gender and Relationship of Children Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The topic of sex differences in the play preschoolers has been explored by many researchers in the past. Studies have been conducted on basic sex differences such as what toys and gender of playmates do young boys and girls prefer. The size of children's play networks, as well as if these networks change in the size during the preschool years have been explored. Also, differences in styles of play and the occurrence of positive and negative interactions have been examined. The effect that parents have on their sons and daughters, as well as preschool classrooms and teachers have been examined as possible causes of sex differences during play.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The aim of this paper is to critically review the recent literature in this field and determine whether or not sex differences occur in play. If sex differences occur, the possible reasons for this occurrence will also be examined. Review of the Research Section   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Maccoby (1990) summarized a number of studies to support her hypothesis that suggests different social situations may either heighten or suppress sex differences in behaviour.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One study was that of social interaction between pairs of young children (Jacklin & Maccoby, 1978). Pairs of 33-month old children were brought together in the same-sex or mixed-sex in a laboratory playroom, and the amount and kind of social behaviour directed more social behaviour, both positive and negative, to same sex playmates that opposite sex ones. Girls paired with boys were more likely to stand watching their partners, or withdraw towards an adult, than boys in any pairing or girls playing with girls. The point brought up in this study is that interactive behaviour is not just situationly specific, it also depends on the gender of participants.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Some of the reasons given by Maccoby (1990) for attraction to same sex partners and avoidance of other sex partners in childhood are the rough play style of boys and their orientation towards competition and dominance. Another reason is that girls find it difficult to influence boys. An example of such reasoning is supported by a study done by Poulishta (1987). Preschool aged boy- girl pairs were observed competing for an object. The children were given a chance to use a movie-viewer that could only be used by one child at a time. It seemed while pairs were alone in the playroom the boys dominated the movie- viewer. When an adult was present, however, this did not occur, The adult's presence seemed to inhibit the boy's more power assertive techniques resulting in equal access. This supports the reason why the attraction to same sex

Saturday, August 17, 2019

High School vs College Essay

Having a good education is the key to becoming successful in life. It is a proven fact. This achievement requires not only graduating from high school, but also from college. Moving from high school to college may be an exciting transition, but it is also a very difficult one. It is a challenge that the student will struggle with and eventually adjust to over time. Although there are many differences between high school and college, one should not think that they are tow completely different worlds. They have their similarities, too. Being a college student requires a lot of responsibility, lots more than is required in high school. In college you won’t have your teacher to remind you of a test coming up or to do your homework. They give you a syllabus with all the due dates on it and expect you to go by it. Also, you’re mom isn’t with you in college to make sure you are awake and ready for class in time either. All of this, my friend, is up to you. The first few weeks of college, I slept in and missed my 8 o’clock chemistry lab class. In high school my mom always made sure I was awake and ready for school. College also has fewer rules than high school does, but this freedom is not all that it’s cut out to be. If you get into a fight, don’t look to just be sent to the principal’s office for a lecture. Instead, you should be well prepared to put your hands behind your back and be escorted away in a car driven by a uniformed police officer. In high school there are rules for dress code. In college, expect to see anything, because there are no dress code rules. Most people in college are mature enough to wear what is appropriate. However, there are always those few exceptions to this generalization. The ratio of similarities between college and high school is almost equal to that of the differences. In the first few years of college, the type of classes is similar if you took the challenging ones offered in high school. You’ll always be taking math, english, science, and social studies. If you thought you were going to avoid these classes, then you thought wrong. I thought I was done with english and history. My high school guidance counselor pulled up VSU’s core curriculum and proved me wrong. Just like in high school, college students have to take a certain amount of classes from each subject in order to get a degree. In high school there are many cliques that form. The rich students bond together in the preppy clique. There are also cliques for those that are involved in sports. Cliques form in a wide variety and every student is in some way or another involved in at least one. College also has cliques that are very similar. As soon as you â€Å"warm up† to the college life, you will find yourself involved in one and there’s nothing wrong with that. It will help you meet new people and ease the transition from high school to college. These cliques help the school year pass quicker and make it more memorable when you are doing things with friends as compared to being alone the whole year. In college you will find the structure of classes to be the same as the one used in high school. Semester systems are used to divide up the year into at least two grading periods. In addition, everyone has classes to attend or else they wouldn’t be considered a student. Each student also has a certain grade requirement that they must meet in order to pass the course. In college if you don’t make a certain grade, you may lose your financial aid and end up paying for it out of your pocket and maybe even your parents. Among the many similarities and differences, the most significant is the difference between the institutional cultures, or how the school is run and the atmosphere that is created in it by the administrators. Many of you will agree that high school has the atmosphere of a prison. Everything is regimented. You have a strict schedule that fills your day from eight in the morning until three in the afternoon and there’s no way to get out of it. By the time you get home, you don’t want to study after being in school and doing school work all day. Also, even though you’re considered to be a young adult, you still get treated like a child. Teachers monitor everything the students do and act as if they need to be contained. Students are told what they can and cannot wear. Some high schools have even implemented uniforms. Basically your ways of expressing yourself is limited. Everything you do or say is restricted to the school’s Code of Conduct, which is so refined there will be no loop holes, I promise you that. Many of these rules even take away some of your Constitutional rights. You have no freedom of speech. And the only way you have a sense of freedom of opinion about something or someone you don’t like is if you keep that opinion to yourself. College is where all of that changes. You decide when your classes are and what subject they will be based upon your major. If you prefer to get your classes over with in the mornings, you can. You can even schedule classes for late in the evening. Many college students tend to space out their schedule to give them free time in between classes. You can even pick your professors. Furthermore, the atmosphere is more laid back and heterodox. There are hardly any rules and none of them violate your Constitutional rights. College consists of many different students from different cultures and ethnic backgrounds. Since college is so diverse, students are actually encouraged to express their point of views, whether it be by what they decide to wear or just by their actions and speech. If cussing is how you express yourself, then there are no rules opposing it like in high school. In addition, at the end of every semester you can even express your opinions on your professor(s), whether it’s negative or positive. No rules are in place that affects what you say about your professor. There are rules, don’t get me wrong, but the administrators or faculty members don’t stand by and watch your every move. If you violate a rule the majority of the time no one pays attention. However if a person reports it, rest assured that you will be notified of the consequences pretty soon. In a sense it is unfair to compare and contrast these two forms of education. There are so many different things that each person does to define their period in high school and college. These branches of life are what you make them. The similarities and differences that I have told you are the most basic ones. Each university and high school is different just as its students are. To find more of the similarities and differences, you must experience both yourself.

Friday, August 16, 2019

My Own Personal And Theoretical Understanding Education Essay

The biggest development so far has to be my apprehension of English as an extra linguistic communication, non merely did I use to believe EAL pupils were portion of the Particular Educational Needs and Disabilities standards, I ever use to see pupils with EAL as a barrier, inquiring myself inquiries like, How would I get the better of the linguistic communication barrier? Making myself believe that EAL pupils are lower ability within all topics, but this is non the instance. Some instructors have small or no apprehension of a kid ‘s demands that does non hold English as their first linguistic communication. Sometimes this deficiency of apprehension and communicating between pupil and instructor can decelerate down the pupils ‘ advancement. Whether the kid is considered to be one of the followers: an Asylum-Seeker, Refugee, Isolated Learner, Sojourner, Bilingual or merely new to English, every kid affairs. EAL teaching method is designed to assist run into the linguistic communication and larning demands of pupils who have English as an extra linguistic communication. Successful EAL scholars will normally hold a good apprehension and a appreciation of their ain first linguistic communication, so while larning English they are able to develop their vocabulary in their first linguistic communication. In order for a pupil to develop cognitively and linguistically, they need to hold the chance to talk and compose within the English linguistic communication from an early phase of a lesson, assisting them to go more witting of their new linguistic communication, this is besides a good manner to measure the pupil ‘s demands, being able to see where they need more development. Student ‘s larning EAL need contextual support in order to do sense of new information and the new linguistic communication ; this can be developed through ocular cues, assisting the EAL pupil to acquire to footings with the undertakings presented to them though their cognition of English is limited. Standard five ‘Adapt learning to react to the strengths and demands of all students ‘ from the Teachers ‘ Standards provinces ; ‘Have a clear apprehension of the demands of all students, including those with particular educational demands ; those of high ability ; those with English as extra linguistic communication ; those with disablements ; and be able to utilize and measure typical instruction attacks to prosecute and back up them. ‘ ( DfE, 2012:8 ) After reading and re-reading the Teachers ‘ Standards and taking this subdivision of Standard five on board I have come to gain, that in order to learn EAL pupils you have got to be willing to larn to learn. No affair where you are within your learning calling you have to larn from the kids within you category. Jim Cummins developed a model, which shows how basic interpersonal communicating accomplishments ( BIC ) and cognitive academic linguistic communication proficiency ( CALP ) can be developed through planning and instruction. The model is helpful to place and develop appropriate undertakings for different pupils within different categories. Though it its believe that pupils need to be working from the high cognitive demand and high contextual support quarter-circle, Conteh explained the quarter-circles in Cummins ‘ diagram as the followers ; ‘Beginning with context-embedded activities and bit by bit traveling, with talk and action, towards less embedded activities means that kids are ne'er left without support, and at the same clip are being encouraged to travel to the new cognition which is the object of the activity. ‘ ( J.Conteh 2006:11 ) After reflecting on the point that Conteh made about how the model fundamentally helps to construct upon the pupil ‘s English cognition, through practical activities and a assortments of experiences within the schoolroom. The best manner to assist with a pupils ‘ cognition is through verbal communicating. Bringing me to submergences versus bilingualism, BIC and CALP are both needed to assist back up a pupils larning and understanding. Though bilingualism is good to pass on between the same linguistic communication and you can happen out more about this pupil within their ain apprehension of their first linguistic communication, submergence will assist a pupil develop quicker. By literately throwing a pupil into the deep terminal with a group of pupils who merely have English as their first linguistic communication the kid is so forced to pass on with these pupils assisting come oning with verbal communicating, this can besides assist with linguistic communication accompli shments through written pieces of work as the pupil is larning from equals who are the best instructors to pupils who are EAL. ‘Have high outlooks of behavior, and set up a model for subject with a scope of schemes, utilizing congratulations, countenances and wages systematically and reasonably ‘ ( DfE, 2012:8 ) Concentrating on standard seven of the Teachers ‘ Standards, behavior is all the clip non merely disputing. When inquiring myself what behavior was all I had in my head were the pupils who are disputing. Coming to gain that behavior is non merely those who like to dispute a instructor, but it is besides those who push to win as mentioned before behavior is all the clip. Within any school many pupils will move otherwise, within different scenes and with different instructors. Some pupils do non like alteration, so a alteration to a usual modus operandi can take to a alteration in behavior ; this besides happens when a pupil is faced with a different instructor to the 1 they are used to. Many instructors and pupils have a common consequence on one and other, when detecting a pupil ‘s behavior alongside the observation of the instructor, there was a direct nexus that you can see that it was every bit much the instructor ‘s behavior that contributed to the incident that go on within the category, whether triggered by a bad twenty-four hours or the features of that specific instructor. Though ambitious behavior is the chief obstruction to raising accomplishment, pull offing behaviour positively can travel a long manner towards cut downing emphasis degrees between staff and students, which helps to enable a safe acquisition environment. When supervising a pupil ‘s behavior I have come to gain that you have to take into history many facets that every kid is different, they all come from different backgrounds, with different degrees of societal and emotional development. Developing a relationship with all the pupils within a category is the key to a happy environment. Amy Demorest, 2005 explains Burrhus Skinner ‘s theory every bit behaviour as being a manner to avoid penalty but to win in accomplishing wages, believing that penalty was counterproductive. When taking this theory with me onto my recent pattern, it came to demo that Skinner ‘s theory was right. Student ‘s will move misconduct but one time the instructor has offered and inaugural for good behavior the pupil automatically stops, because they know at the terminal of the twenty-four hours they are being rewarded for something they would be acquiring into problem for. Though this theory does come with advantages, after a piece of the pupil being offered a wages in topographic point of misbehavior the pupil will shortly alter their ways and be cognizant they no longer have to move up in order to have congratulations and a wages. The idea of going a instructor is highly rewarding, but it is traveling to take tonss of work, clip and consideration on my portion. Planning, clip direction and administration play a critical function in pull offing a schoolroom. In order to pull off a schoolroom, I will necessitate to hold effectual outlooks, make usage of the resources available to me and hold good clip direction. Supplying a batch of work within the schoolroom is of import to supply a batch of engagement for the pupils, this will guarantee that pupils are focused and enthusiastic within the category. Having a set of schoolroom regulations and modus operandis will assist set up socialization within the schoolroom, constructing up guidelines that must be followed within the category environment. Though regulations and modus operandis are highly different, let go of the overarching rules by which your category is fun, these regulations within the category define the ethos of the schoolroom, they need to positively depict coveted behavior and properties and in the long term support the pupils developing self-regulation of their behavior and direction. Whereas modus operandis are the manner specific undertakings need to be carried out, in order to guarantee a safe and purposeful acquisition environment. Efficaciously pull offing a schoolroom is of import to hold the category laid out and arranged in a manner that makes larning easier. The layout will hold an impact on the manner you teach and the manner the pupils learn. For each lesson it is impractical to travel the schoolroom unit of ammunition, so acquiring a layout that can be used for all topics is the key. It is critical to see all the pupils ‘ faces, and you besides need to guarantee they can see you and the synergistic white board or any other resource you are utilizing within the category. There are a batch of ways in which a schoolroom can be laid out and organized but it ‘s the 1 that suits the instructor best. So for me it will be about test and mistake as this is the lone manner you learn what suits you. Whether it is: the horseshoe, a circle, rows or sitting in ability groups or friendly relationship groups, there are pro ‘s and con ‘s to all these siting agreements. The lone manner to see what will accommodate non merely myself but my category is to seek each manner until I have found the perfect manner for the pupils to acquire the best out of the ballad out and place of resource ‘s so my category will be managed to my best ability. Taking the above on board and believing about how I am traveling to win to go an outstanding instructor I need to hold a mark and program in topographic point in order to accomplish this. Reflecting on my professional pattern I can see that I need to concentrate in more on how the kids respond to behavioural techniques the instructor has in topographic point. Though I saw house points being used I did non see any other signifier of enterprise in topographic point for the category. Every Friday afternoon the pupils would acquire aureate though if they had warnings throughout the hebdomad they would lose at least five proceedingss per warning. Within my twelvemonth six category they all had occupations they carried out every twenty-four hours throughout the school, so when thought and reflecting I can see this was besides a privilege for good behavior and gave them duty within their school fixing them for the following phase of their instruction. I feel that when I go back into school for farther pattern I want to research schoolroom direction and administration more. Asking assorted inquiries on how the instructor ensures she gets the best usage of all her resources and how she gets the kids to behaviour as they are sitting within friendly relationship groups. I can see how this works as there is a mix of ability on each tabular array and the lower ability are supported by their higher ability friends within their surveies, but how does she controls the sum of work done and the less yak traveling on throughout the lessons. Though there is merely one EAL pupil within the school, I am traveling to supervise and research learning techniques with this pupil during my following pattern at the school. On my first pattern I spoke to the category instructor about assorted ways in assisting this pupil advancement within her acquisition of English, for case blending the ability degree she is in, puting the pupil in a higher ability group than the lowest to seek and act upon her to talk out more and contribute. The category instructor has invited me to fall in her category on the 2nd portion of my pattern to assist me derive more understanding and cognition within pattern with an EAL pupil. In decision I feel that I need to utilize my contemplations to put myself bigger challenges and marks to make within the hereafter. To derive more understanding and cognition of the primary school atmosphere and develop my ain techniques of instruction. I am trusting on the following portion of my pattern I am able to set some of the techniques I have discussed into action through the usage of my microteaching. Hoping to research manner in which I can organize my schoolroom to derive the best usage of resources and the best manner the pupils within the category will larn. Not merely am I be aftering on acquiring to cognize my pupils better but besides I am trusting to derive a better apprehension of myself. Reflecting and come oning this experience to see myself as non merely a pupil but, a trainee instructor, with the power over the pupils larning and assisting the following coevals to win into exceeding scholars and outstanding professionals.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Performance pay for MGOA Physicians (A) Essay

On a warm day in June of 1998, Dr. Harry Rubash stood in front of a bookshelf in his new office arranging photographs of his family and former colleagues in Pittsburgh. He looked out his window to the profusion of hospital buildings and tangled Boston streets below. It was a good picture, he thought, of the problems that faced him in his new position at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Dr. James Herndon, his former colleague at the hospital system of the University of Pittsburgh, had brought him to MGH to take over as chief of orthopaedics at Massachusetts General Orthopaedic Associates (MGOA). Herndon himself was new to MGH, having recently taken over as chairman of Partners Orthopaedics.1 Rubash and Herndon faced the ominous challenge of restoring the financial health of the ailing MGOA. The Hospital’s History In service since 1811, MGH was the third hospital founded in the United States and included the first orthopaedic service in the country, founded in 1899 by Dr. Joel E. Goldthwait, a pioneer in the field. The department had a long history of providing outstanding clinical care, in addition to making significant contributions to medical research and teaching. It was an MGH doctor who first made the discovery of a herniated disc. In fact, the annals of orthopaedic literature were filled with disorders that bore the names of the MGH doctors who discovered them. The prestige of both MGH and the orthopaedic department was well-deserved. In 1998, the year Rubash and Herndon arrived, the 12 surgeons at MGOA performed over 2,000 surgeries (see Table A for the number of surgeries performed from 1997 to 1999).2 The range of procedures performed covered everything from knee arthroscopy to hip replacements, to spinal surgery. The group also had a history of providing services to a wide array of patients across the socio-economic spectrum. Table B shows the group received revenues from patients with private insurance companies, patients on Medicare (government insurance for the elderly) and Medicaid (government insurance for low-income individuals and families), those covered by worker’s compensation, and self-pay patients (those without insurance). 1 Partners Healthcare was the parent company of the Massachusetts General Hospital. 2 MGOA surgeons had 252 days of surgical time per year. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Professor Jason R. Barro, Kevin J. Bozic, MD (MBA 2001), and Research Associate Aaron M. G. Zimmerman prepared the original version of this case, Performance Pay for MGOA Physicians (A), HBS No. 902-159 which is being replaced by this version prepared by the same authors. Some names in the case have been changed. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Copyright  © 2003 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. This document is authorized for use only in Human Resources Management – MMHA 6220 by Angela Montgomery at Laureate Education – Baltimore from February 2014 to February 2015.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Pest Russia

Political – The political risks are the same in any emerging market and all have to be considered by the possible new organisation. ? Russia has a reputation for organised crime and corruption which has long been an issue for any investors. ? There are very strict laws in Russia to do with mode of entry and so the country usually prefers to trade with its former Soviet allies. Potential tourists could be eliminated from entering Russia due to the strict rules on visas for all tourists entering the country. ? There are a number of policies, laws, marketing and advertising, and health and safety requirements which all international organisations must adhere to – if they do not they will be punished and may not be able to expand within Russia. Economical – Economic growth, population size and income are some of the factors which affect the choice location of firms. This transitional economy is known for high rate of inflation, foreign trade deficits, high rates of u nemployment and high costs of capital. ? Although the low labour costs are often what attracts organisations to this emerging market there are a number of hurdles which they must get over before they even get to that stage. ? The global economic crisis has caused the price of oil and gas to ‘dwindle’ which has caused huge fluctuations in the Rouble. ‘The EIUU forecasts 2. 5% GDP growth for 2010 and 4. 1% for 2011, which represents a stronger and quicker rebound than in Western Europe’ (Geieregger, Chawala and Veller 2009) ? ‘Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolates, centrally-planned economy to a more market-based and globally-integrated economy’ (Central Intelligence Agency 2010). Social Russia has the largest land mass in the world spanning over 17,000,000 square kilometres. ? Russia has a low populations growth at -0. 465% Technological ? Certain parts of Russia are impr oving on their infrastructure. For example Sochi are developing the local rail network as well as redeveloping one of their airport terminals in order to be able to hand the pressure from visitors at the 2014 Olympic Games

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Lead Presentation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Lead Presentation - Essay Example In the present report, we will concentrate upon different approaches to calculating payment to the staff, with especial emphasis upon the use of performance-based and skill-based payment systems, and compensation packages. Whereas there are several types of salary (fixed, performance-based, skill-based, etc.), each having its merits and demerits, the companies choose the one that corresponds ideally to the profession, style of work, and even personal traits of workers. It is a well-known phenomenon that whereas some categories of employees are motivated by high salaries, others prefer getting compensation package rather than big salary. For companies' managers, it is often difficult to choose between offering their employees high salary, on the one hand, and other benefits on the other. Let us therefore consider two types of payment and compensation packages, and how their use influences the performance of the employees. Skill-based system of employees' remuneration certainly has both advantages and disadvantages: on the one hand, it makes the task of calculating the payment for each worker easier for the company's management and allows to attract and retain highly skilled personnel, but on the other hand it takes into account skills rather than actual performance and therefore people get more not because they work hard but because of their background. Sometimes employees with better skills perform worse than those who are less skilled, and in these cases such a system of payment will affect the quality of work, lower employees' motivation, and even destroy team spirit. Yet, it may be argued that those who had been able to develop a certain amount of skills are those whose motivation and performance are high, and the system of skill-based payment works under the condition that certain rules are stuck to. First of all, it is crucial that the employees understand the way the payment is calculated, and fully committed to the company so that there are no doubts as for its fair attitude to staff. (Schuster, 1998) Secondly, the company's management has to make sure that the skills the workers acquire correspond to the company's goals, since it has been pinpointed that skill-based pay is likely to cause problems in cases when the skills acquired by the staff 'become outdated or if the skills are not being used to the fullest by the company'. (Ashish et al. 2004) Therefore, the company should "reflect the button of an employees learned skills to the achievement of company goals". (Fox 2002) 2.2. Compensation packages Perhaps the main argument in favor of company's using compensation packages is that this brings the employees to a considerable degree of commitment making them regard their company as stable, reliable, and caring about its staff's wellbeing. Nowadays, practically any respectable company offers their staff compensation packages of some sort which may include bonuses, holding companies' stocks, getting discounts, medical insurance, etc. (What does a total compensation package include, 2001; Compensation package, 2005; Evaluating the total compensation package, 2005) Free trainings and courses are also extremely motivating, especially for the young