Monday, September 30, 2019

Immune System and Normal Red

Unit 10: Blood/Immunology Case Study Lab What were your three diagnoses? 1. Case 1: Sickle-Cell Anemia 2. Case 2: Mononucleosis 3. Case 3: Pernicious Anemia Journal Questions for lab 1. In what ways do normal red and white blood cells differ? Normal blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body. White blood cells fight against viruses, infections, and other foreign objects. 2. Which type of white blood cell would you expect to be most common in a normal blood smear?Neutrophils 3. A differential count of white blood cells from a patient gave the absolute number of lymphocytes as 8000 per mm3 and the total number of white blood cells as 12,000 per mm3. Calculate the percentage of lymphocytes in this sample of white blood cells. Is this a normal or abnormal percentage? Explain your answer. You divide 8000 by 12000 and then times by 100. This will give you 2/3% (66. 67%) . this is abnormal regular is 20-40% 4.Describe the difference between a communicable disease and an inherited disease. Use examples you have studied in this exploration to support your description. A communicable disease can be transferred for one person to one another. A inherited disease is passed by genetics. 5. Why white blood cells in a stained blood smear are usually counted at low power under a microscope? Explain your answer. Because they are bigger than other blood cells. . Why is the presence of a larger than normal number of neutrophils indicative of an infection? Explain your answer. Cause neutrophils fight infections so if there is a higher than normal that means that they are fighting off an infection. 7. Why would you not expect to see tissue macrophages in a blood smear? Explain your answer. Cause macrophages move within the tissue unless tissue is in the blood smear.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Communication Assignment Essay

Describe the main differences between communicating with adults and communication with children and young people (3. 2) Although there are some factors of communication that should be present regardless of age or development such as respect and courtesy, as adults and teaching staff we should adapt our communication and language with who we are talking to and their age. There is a need when communicating with children and young people to be clear and unambiguous. This helps children and young people understand what we are saying and expressing as well as helping them develop language and communication skills to use for themselves. As teaching staff when communicating with a child or young person it is important not to use too much language as the message or request could become confused and lost by the child or young person. It is important to ensure that the child or young people understand what is being asked of them and that teaching staff should ensure that this level of understanding is achieved and remember to be patient and mindful of age and development. It is also important to bear in mind that child and young people will copy adult behaviour and it is therefore imperative to model the kind of communication you would expect from them. This is why ensuring respect, accepting contributions and differences of opinions, being polite and courteous are crucial when communicating with children/ young people and adults. Identify examples of communication difficulties that may exist (3. 3) Communication is a crucial skill and helps us express feelings, make choices and aids us in all aspects of life, there are many pupils that struggle with communication and areas of difficulty can arise for a variety of reasons. This could be due to special needs or because of attitudes and beliefs. Physical Factors These could include speech impediments such as a stammer or more serious physical conditions or special needs which effect the ability of communication. Working in a special needs school I work with many students that are not able to verbally communicate for a number of different reasons such as severe autism, severe developmental delay and down syndrome. Although these students are fully supported and often have other ways to communicate they can often become frustrated that they cannot communicate their feelings. It also affects their independence. Confidence Confidence could be another barrier to communication. Confidence can be developed with practise; a pupil’s self esteem is linked to feelings of self-affirmation and belonging. As teaching staff it is important to empower pupils and give them the confidence that assists communication for example this could be done by giving a pupil enough time to respond and by being sensitive. Cultural Differences There may be communication difficulties due to cultural differences. This could be created because of different expectations created by culture. An example of this could be that a student in a school maybe part of a culture where eye contact is not encouraged this could mean that people may not pick up as many non verbal cues. Describe how to adapt communication to meet different communication needs (3. 4) It may be necessary to adapt the way in which you communicate if you are communicating with someone who has difficulties in this area. The following techniques can be used †¢ Speak clearly and appropriately when communicating. †¢ Slow your speech if necessary. Use visual aids such as pictures, photograph or flashcards. †¢ Use a translator if necessary. †¢ Use sign language. †¢ Maintain good eye contact and use positive body language. †¢ Use facial expressions and hand gestures. Working in a school for severely disabled young people, many of the students have communication difficulties, for many their communication skills are not representative of their age. This has meant that staff in the scho ol have to adapt to enable the students ways to communicate their feelings/wants/needs appropriately. Although teaching staff try to encourage speech there are other techniques that are used. For example * Makaton signing Makaton is a language programme using signs and symbols to help people to communicate. It is designed to support spoken language and the signs and symbols are used with speech, in spoken word order. * Symbols/ Visual aids/ Visual timetables Symbols can be used to re enforce a message or a request used along side speech, an example of this could be handing a student a stop sign and saying â€Å"stop† if the student was being silly. Symbols can also be used as part of a visual timetable, these are usually used in autistic classes, symbols (or words) that represent the activities the students will be doing that day and in the correct order so they are aware of what they will be doing. * Electronic speakers Some students that are not able to communicate verbally use an electronic speaker; these are specialised computers that enable people to communicate. The user presses different buttons to communicate what they are trying to say, the speaker says the different words out loud. * PECS Picture, exchange, communication system (PECS) is a system of communication in which the student hands symbols to an adult to request something or to communicate a feeling. It tends to be used in autistic settings and gives students the opportunity for spontaneous communication. Describe how to deal with disagreements between; * The practitioner and child/ young people There can often be disagreements between teaching assistant staff and young people. This could be because staff have to put boundaries and rules in place which the young people may not agree with. In the case of a disagreement it is important to address the situation. The staff member should stay calm and collected and explain why they have taken the action that they have taken. In this case, of a disagreement because of boundaries the staff team should be consistent. Depending on the nature of the disagreement it may also be an idea to discuss it afterwards when everybody is thinking rationally, this could be an opportunity to talk about why it happened and how to prevent in the future. In my care setting there have been occasions that young people have targeted staff for unknown reasons. This can be difficult for the staff, in this case it’s important to provide support as a team. The staff member may want to do activities and tasks with the young person in the future to develop relationships. * The practitioner and other adults (3. 5) It is likely that when working along side people in a work setting that there will be disagreements. This could be for a number of reasons, including poor communication or clashes of personalities and ideas, as adults we can sometimes misread situations and information given, we can also be defensive and lead by our emotions. In these conflict situations it is important to be sensitive as well as keen to resolve the situation and soon as possible. Being open and honest about thoughts and feelings can help resolve a situation and ensure that both parties do their best to prevent it happening again. It is also important to remember that as an employee you are contracted to be professional. If employees are not able to resolve a disagreement they should refer to the schools grievance policy or procedure.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

It’s Time for a Change Essay

Social issues have lingered in the shadows of American history since the day that our independence was signed in 1776, a mere two hundred and thirty ­nine years ago. At that time, social issues consisted of our founding father’s debate over which men were to be considered equal, and the social issue of slavery as a whole became prominent to our young nation. From slavery to suffrage, the United States is no stranger to defining these particular social wrongs, and striving to make them right. As time has developed, the issues of old have passed, but now, new ones have arose. Currently, sitting in 2015, the United States is again being subjected to another social issueÍ ¾ that is police brutality and the use of body cameras as a means of holding all parties involved accountable for their actions. It is simply irresponsible not to implement this new means of technology and I believe that it’s use is a key factor in solving the social issue of police brutality, and the u ntrust and stigmas that stem from this abuse of power. Names like Trayvon Martin, Michael Brown, and Eric Garner have dominated headlines of many major news outlets for the past two years. The common factor between the three being the excessive use of force upon unarmed civilians. In the cases of Martin and Brown, both men were fatally shot, both were unarmed, and both had two conflicting sides of the story detailing the events leading up to and after their respective shootings. In each instance, many in the public were led to believe that racial stigmas were the determining reasons for the pulling of the trigger, and as a result mass protests and riots have occurred in towns such as but not limited to, Ferguson, Missouri and New York City. This is where body cameras demonstrate their necessity in our society and culture. As previously mentioned, both Michael Brown and Trayvon Martin’s deaths both went unrecorded, and the only substantial evidence of what occurred is the accounts of those who fired the fatal bullets. This is a defined problem. Despite either the positive or negative intentions of the officers who fired their weapons, each one has a bias, and with that, it can lead to that party giving a skewed opinion on how the events of each occurrence actually went down. The idea of a human source is just simply too unreliable, and it comes down our own human nature with bias’, and the fact that every single person has one. The use of body cameras instead in these instances would ultimately resolve this problem. Real footage would clearly display whether or not the use of fatal force was indeed necessary to use upon an unarmed civilian, and if not, it would hold the actually guilty party accountable for their actions. By simply attaching a recording device to an officer’s person, society is able to cut out human bias, and reveal the true nature of the event. The benefit alone in these new technologies makes the investment worth every dollar.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Ideology in modern politics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Ideology in modern politics - Essay Example Morgenthau (1978) states that collective moral values are not applicable to the actions of a political party and an effort to do so is unrealistic. Realist theory recognises that morality must be filtered through legitimate situations and circumstances occurring within a nation state when attempting to ensure national security and longevity. This has been witnessed in the United States where the collective ideology of liberty and freedom, as mandated by social sentiment, was oppressed by political actors in an effort to depose domestic terrorism from the country after the terrorist attacks in New York’s World Trade Centre. In 2001, the American government launched the Patriot Act which gave political actors more authority to conduct wire-tapping on domestic citizens and engage in observation of citizen activities as a justification for ensuring national security and guaranteeing better safety of patriotic citizens. Circumstances, in this situation, forbade reaching decisions o n how to curb terrorist activities based on fundamental and universal social attitudes related to liberty and freedom. The aforementioned example of the U.S. Patriot Act underpins a sense of nationalism. The United States maintains a strong sense of nationalism and patriotism toward the view that this nation is a hegemonic authority and founded on a significant sense of ethnocentrism. Prior to this recession, in the UK free market-oriented society, if government had provided capital to businesses in this fashion, citizen dissent would likely have been significant.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Liberalisation of the financial sector iceland Essay

Liberalisation of the financial sector iceland - Essay Example The banks in general did not have to worry too much about the competition and customer satisfaction philosophies as the banks had been working under national regulation as part of the public sector. Earlier, Icelandic banks did have international offices to support the domestic customers, e.g. Kaupthing bank's filial in Luxembourg and New York; however most of the business was domestic orientated. Today 70% of profits of Kaupthing bank, the third largest in Iceland, are made outside Iceland - a significant change (Annual rapport 2006, Kaupthing Bank p4). Iceland is an island with many small isolated towns; therefore the cost of having many filial is considerably high. But in view of the local needs, it was a necessity (Jensen 2003). The liberalization process has contributed immensely towards expanding the domestic financial markets. Today the major credit institutions such as pension funds and house founds, which used to be separate units earlier, are today merged with the new commercial banks (sector rapport OECD p43). Therefore the banks have now changed from being mere saving banks to financial institutions (FIs) with a wide portfolio of services from lending money out to holding pensions. Though government still controls the larger household funds, whose job is to lend out money for buying houses. This is seen as a secure investment. In addition it also provides short-term credit for households and businesses as is provided by commercial banks. The longer term financing for both business and housing is largely provided by government investment funds drawn from their resources in private sector pension schemes and foreign borrowings. The Icelandic financial institutions are divided into three main groups, banks, pension funds and government credit funds. The government credit funds can be further divided into 3 minor groups, (insurance, leasing and mutual funds). Looking on the graph at appendix 5 we can see that the pension funds and the banks have the biggest share. The foreign sector who supplies outstanding credit to government and its credit funds -also figures as a dominating group. Controlling of the financial market doing liberalizing period Before the liberalisation process, the government was in control of most of the financial institutions in Iceland including the banking sector. The sectors were missing out on reforms process and modern agreements. The financial sector had more in common with a regulated Pan Atlantic country than the rest of north Europe. This was also due to a smaller economy where the government wanted to protect it against foreign exchange speculations dealers. Iceland has undergone through several years' of weak economy with a high rate of inflation and strong devaluation of its currency. Some of the Icelandic Banks also suffered huge losses while being a part of the public sector. Owing to such losses the Islandsbanki became insolvent in 1995 (Jensen 2006 p7). Banking sector Today, there are 24 smaller 'saving banks' and 3 'major banks' in the financial sector in Iceland. The three banks, Kaupthing Bank, Landsbanki Bank and Glitnir Bank are dominating the

Guam Governor Island Address Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Guam Governor Island Address - Dissertation Example He lauds the growth in the private sector and that many business permits have been issued as well as the licensing of over a thousand private contractors, which is attributed by the reduced restrictions to investments resulting in job growth. Moreover, educational reforms have been instituted enabling more children to enroll in school and to stand better chances of employment, and this has also benefited adult learners; in addition, he claims that the education system still requires to be adjusted for it to be both practical and match to international standards. Moreover, he discusses ways to solve housing crisis, the projects in place to build 3000 units by 2017, the achievements made in solving land crisis are mentioned, and he promises to ensure food production is improved for the island to become self-sufficient. These developments will improve the tourism sector and hopes to see tourist hotels fill up, he projects that the Russian and Chinese markets will continue to grow result ing in additional tourists (Calvo 8). Furthermore, he mentions the revitalization of the Hagatna highway and promises that more roads will be developed; museums of the local culture would also be constructed, and that the Guam museum is already under construction. He criticizes the rising cost power and proposes the use of GPA and CCU systems, which would reduce the cost, but also the environment, damage (Calvo 9). He also discusses the need for lifestyle change since the three top killers, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer were lifestyle related, and many people have no access to medical care and the main hospital needs more funding to cover the needs of everyone (Calvo 4). He addresses the need for more projects to honor and assists the veterans and war heroes in making smooth transitions; in addition to the poor and voiceless such as those afflicted with mental problems will be considered. He announces that in his tenure, tax refunds have been prompt and compensation has been c ompletive, he also claims that there have not been new taxes and employees are rewarded on the basis of merit in order to motivate them. He mentions victories in the fight against corruption and discusses the importance of transparency, and pledges to solve understaffing in the police force and congratulates them for a good job, and he assures resident that his administration would crack down crimes, especially the sexual predators with the collaboration of the police. He critics the federal government concerning the funding crisis and imbalance between the state and federal government, and promises to do all he can to fix this to the extent of suing the federal authorities. Finally, he calls the people’s attention to the changes in government over the last few years and its increased efficiency under his governance, he promises in time to turn the extraordinary to commonplace in Guam. Response Drawing from the speech, it is evident that the governor is confident and proud of the accomplishments achieved in his tenure and rightfully so, from the PDFs provided, the claims in his speech are much more than political rhetoric. He makes a clear, coherent and well-organized presentation supported by statistical and concrete evidence, thus, he engenderers the transparency he is trying to institute and thus leads by example. In

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Economic Theory - Airline Industry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Economic Theory - Airline Industry - Essay Example This paper examines the economic profile of the airline industry paying attention to issues such as shifts and price elasticity of supply and demand, positive and negative externalities, wage inequalities and monetary and fiscal policies. The first part of the report provides an overview of the airline industry while the second part of the report focuses on the above listed variables. Air transport today is one of the largest industries in the world. For example, the scheduled airline industry generated revenues of nearly $375 billion in 2004 (British Airways Fact book 2006). According to BA Fact Book (2006), over half a billion passengers were carried on international scheduled services with this figure having grown at an annual average rate of more than 6% since 1970, when the then corresponding number of passengers was 75 million (British Airways Fact book 2006). Many commentators for example have long argued that, aviation has an overall economic impact far in excess of its turnover (Riggas 2001). Here, Boyd (2000) argues that the network of air transport services facilitates growth in output and employment, and at the same time international trade and investment, tourism, and living standards (Boyd 2000). BA Fact Book (2006) refers to Air travel as â€Å"a vital artery that reinforces the process of globalisation, allowing it to transform the way in which many other industries carry out their business† (BA Fact Book 2006:5). In response to the rapid growth in business travels in recent years, the airline industry has witnessed rapid growth in the last four decades. Rigaes (2002) postulates that, one argument in favour of the present state of the airline industry is positive externality. Thus such a higher growth in the sector is due to global mobility that outweighs the microeconomic losses and justifies continuing government intervention. The industry is also

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Jhon Barleycorn by Jack London Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Jhon Barleycorn by Jack London - Essay Example a dimension which is free from any rules or obligations. Probably the one who is under the influence, sees things clearly, well at least from a different angle. This angle is far from the norm or what people are used to. The way first chapter of the book begins, it speaks volumes about the mental state of the man. He is going to vote for something very important and he’s drunk. Probably logic doesn’t do justice when it comes to voting. He votes for women suffrage amendment. The popular vote is probably a fabrication, a concoction, and people who craft the ballet box and the election system, design it in such way so that it gets picked up by the majority. It is equivalent to giving a person a set of choices and when he’s done choosing his favorite, he feels liberated as he used his freedom of choice to get what he liked but little does he know that all choices were acceptable by the person who gave him the choice. The interesting thing about the state of mind (of the protagonist) is when he’s under the influence, he gets more indignant while explaining or talking about something. He explains why he voted for the woman suffrage amendment. Although he claims that he was not under the influence but probably he was. He gives his reason that he ride his way back from the polling station on the back of the wildest horse. No one can ride it drunk, that’s why he couldn’t be drunk. Nice explanation but it doesn’t prove he wasn’t under the influence. People consider Jack’s book his autobiography. There is no doubt that he was an alcoholic himself. And this book probably is a preaching book towards alcoholism. What a man feels when he’s drunk is something a man can’t understand unless he’s drunk. Some strange wisdom, which is â€Å"beyond life’s wisdom† starts flowing as the rum goes in the body. The question is what kind of explanation is that? On the surface it might seem

Monday, September 23, 2019

Wireless network design Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Wireless network design - Essay Example This paper looks at implementing wireless network in an organization. Why should one use wireless instead of the traditional wired networks, the advantages and disadvantages of wireless network and the components of wireless network. The paper also looks at the configurations for wireless network. The strength of having wireless internet is attributed to the fact that wires or cables are not required to connect each node on the network hence it is cheaper to install and maintain. While interface which results to packet errors and security concerns are some of the shortcoming of wireless network. When designing the wireless network, the main goal is to ensure that services, which were offered by other modes of communication, are offered even more effectively. Therefore, the same data types and services should be available to the users after implementing it. The safety and security concerns of the data on the internet must be well addressed. This is because any person can attempt to access information illegally once on the network. Encryption mechanisms should be implemented to protect the privacy of the users and the organizational data. As privacy and confidentiality is ensured in the design of wireless network, the existing services of the organization should be transparent which means they should be available. The two protocols both operate in spectrum technique in 2.4 GHz band (in the range of 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz) with 83.5 MHz total bandwidth. 802.11 uses; DSSS, CCK and OFDM techniques. The technique has method and mechanisms of adapting to noise, where the 802.11 uses 1 to 54 Mb/s signal rate to protect its protocol from noise. Adaption to noise is done in physical layer in 802.11 where it is transparent to higher layers. This wireless network has capabilities of transmission speeds going to 300Mbps. The frequency range of this technology is 2.4GHz to 5.0 GHz. It is the most recent wireless

Sunday, September 22, 2019

My Teacher, My Hero Essay Example for Free

My Teacher, My Hero Essay When my friends asked me to write again, I decided to start my compilation with something meaningful, a themed essay for the My Teacher, My Hero theme, contrary to last year wherein I had a hard time choosing who to pay tribute to, this year is much different, it was easy and I believe, it is the most obvious choice. Everyone has someone to keep them on their own feet as they walk through life. Normally, it would be your parent or friend, but mine is different, I had kept myself intact with the help of a teacher. Teachers are usually there to impart knowledge and give you an opportunity to move on with life, I was blessed to have someone during my college days who takes time to make sure that I was okay and the strength to hold on to when everything else went astray, he was Engr. Elmerito D. Pineda. I first met Engr. Pineda as my professor back when I was in First Year (Advanced Programming Languages in C) , back then, things were just inside the classroom – lectures, quizzes, exercises which brought my confidence back after losing my scholarship during the previous term but things turned different when I was in my Third Year and he became our thesis mentor. He turned out to be the #1 Supporter to what we have wanted in the first place, the Alumni Tracer for FEU – East Asia College. Despite both parties having to adjust to the situation of having a part-time mentor last year, we both exerted effort to follow-up and communicate with each other. Since I was always doing the documentation portion of most our projects, I was the one responsible for making follow-ups with the mentor, which happened to be Mr. Pineda. I took it as my responsibility to stay late, meet him after classes for checking and even go straight to his FEU Main class just to finish the proposal for our thesis. Unfortunately, our second term was cut short after failing the proposal defense – but when things thought that it was the end of our mentorship with Engr. Pineda, we were wrong. He stayed with us until the very end. He had always made sure that I was okay. He had always made me feel secure especially by showing me how much he believes in the entire group. When we are back for the third term with a different project and mentor, he made sure he would ask us about our thesis and he was one of the few people who first congratulated us after a successful defense – indeed, he showed me that he was true to his words when we started communicating, â€Å"Dito lang ako for you, parang si Ms. Bong (Evelyn Ruth M. Manuel)†. He never left the group, he never left me during the good times and the bad times. Even if he is not physically present, his presence would always be felt wholeheartedly, and in the little ways he does it, I am extremely grateful. As time pass by, I looked up to him as one of the best friends and as my â€Å"dad† in school. I still see him from time to time. He has helped mold my character to be as strong as it is right now. He has his own way of teaching me things, he doesn’t get mad easily when you do something wrong, however, he has his own way to show you that you are wrong and it is proven effective to me, I managed to make amends and never do things again. For all the things he has done for me, all I can do to repay is to be there for him as well. I know I would be supporting him in whatever he would aspire to do in his life. I also look forward to see him finish Doctoral of Information Technology sometime next year for it would add weapons to his already impressive curriculum vitae. I hope he touch more lives and help direct it to a better place, just like how he helped me push my life back on track. My life would never be perfect. I would always experience the roller-coasters of being a human being but I would always remember one thing, that indeed, I was blessed. I was blessed to have people that would guide me. I was blessed to have people who would accept me for who I am. Furthermore, I am blessed to have Engr. Elmerito D. Pineda in my life, whatever you do call him, he would always have a special place in my life, a great mentor, friend and a dad. Engr. Elmerito D. Pineda, hats off†¦ my 2011 would not be complete without having the opportunity to thank you for everything that you have done for me.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

VitraHaus Construction Analysis

VitraHaus Construction Analysis The home of Vitra Home Collection, VitraHaus (2006-2010), is located on Vitra Campus in Weil am Rhein, Germany.1 It was designed by Basel-based architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron and opened in 2010.2 The purpose of the VitraHaus was to provide a space to present Vitra Home Collection furniture arrangements in different style genres and also provide inspirational ideas for visitors home and their own taste in design.3 In Charles Ray Eames Showroom, this was overcome by use of precedents which includes minimalism and the architects previous projects in Munich, Basel, and Paris.4 A) Historical Introduction: The VitraHaus(fig.1) was initiated as the home of the Vitra Home Collection that launched in January 2004.5 The company Vitra is a manufacturer and retailer of many leading furniture designers works.6 Vitra is also known for the Vitra Campus(fig.2) that make up its premises in Wil am Rhein.7 It is where company s widely acclaimed architecture of museum, atelier, showrooms, warehouse and manufacturing buildings are situated which make up its premises.8 These buildings are known for its internationally recognized architects such as like Frank Gehry, Tadao Ando, Zaha Hadid, Nicholas Grimshaw, Alvaro Siza and Antonio Citterio as well as structures by Jean Prouv? and Richard Buckminster Fuller.9 Since its foundation in 1950, the company focused mainly on office furnishings and has targeted business clients until they launched its Home Collection in January 2004 with a new target group in mind: individual customers with an interest in design.10 It features collection of unique home product s including design classics, re-editions, as well as works by contemporary designers.11 The Vitra Home Collection was displayed in a former factory building on the main Vitra production site until the company decided to have a space solely serve for the Home Collection.12 To construct an additional space on the Vitra Campus, the company commissioned two Basel based architects Herzog and de Meuron in 2006 to design the home of Vitra Home Collection the VitraHause.13 The design development took place from 2006 to 2007 and the construction continued from 2007 to 2009 where the VitraHaus opened in Feburary 22nd 2010.14 The construction of VitraHaus was also a starting of a new chapter in the history of Vitra Campus since it was the newest addition in sixteen years since the last building the Vitra Design Museum by Frank Gehry in1994.15 B) Spatial Organization and Planning: The VitraHaus is a five storey structure with twelve houses within the building.16 (fig.3) The Charles and Ray Eames showroom (fig.4) is located in the third floor of VitraHaus with dimension of approximately 90sq.meter.17 The visitors discovery on the path through the VitraHaus starts from fourth floor of the building towards the lower floors.18 As one starts their tour in fourth floor loft, they are introduced to a spectacular view of the Tullinger Hill and the history of Vitra and the VitraHaus.19 After one has been introduced to a brief knowledge of the Vitra and its history of furniture, The Vitra Classic awaits in the third floor (fig.5) where Charles and Ray Eames showroom is located.20 The Vitra Classic floor can be reached by three different paths throughout the building.21 First is to take the main stair which connects all the floors in the building.22 This main stair will introduce you directly to Charles and Ray Eames showroom which is located in the North East side of the floor.23 The second method is to take a lift which also connects all the floors in the building.24 However, the lift will lead you to the other collection of Vitra Classics which is located in the South West side of the floor.25 But one can easily walk to the other side of the floor.26 The third is a spiral stair which is accessible from the second floor.27 On the arrival of this spiral stair, one can choose to walk straight forward to the South West part of the floor or turn around to visit the Charles and Ray Eames collection.28 As you enter the showroom (fig.6), the front facade with glazed gable ends opens up the room to the view of landscape and the Vitra Campus.29 The daylight from the window also makes the room feel more spacious. On the East of the room is the display wall with wall mounted shelving and colour coded signage to categorize Charles and Ray Eames designs.30 To the West side of the space, chairs are displayed on the floor along the wall with different flooring that separates between the display area and circulation floor.31 The West side of the space also has the spiral stairs which opened up upper part of the wall which gives view of second floor which presents the Living, Eating, and Working at Home collections.32 C) Materials and Construction Method(s): The VitraHaus is a five storey structure of stacked volumes of the archetypal house which comprised of twelve houses.33 Five houses are set at the ground floor with seven more houses are stacked up, intersected and in support of one another.34 Stacked into a total of five storeys and breathtakingly cantilevered up to fifteen metres in some places, the twelve houses, whose floor slabs intersect the underlying gables, create a three-dimensional assemblage ? a pile of houses that, at first glance, has an almost chaotic appearance.35 The VitraHaus rises above the other buildings on the Vitra Campus with maximum dimensions of 57 metres in length, 54 metres in width and 21.3 metres in height.36(fig.7) The deliberate intention was to grant an overview of the surrounding landscape, the campus as well as an overview of the Home Collection by constructing a vertically oriented structure with a small footprint.37 The charcoal coloured stucco on the exterior of the building unifies the structure, and connects it to the surrounding landscape.38 (fig.8) A wooden plank floors made from the local larch wood defines an open central area, where five ground floor buildings are grouped.39 (fig.9) It performs as a conference area, Vitra Design Museum Shop, business lounge and a Vitrine exhibition space, the lobby with a reception area and a caf? with an outdoor terrace for summer use.40 As interior and exterior spaces interpenetrate, so do two types of forms: the orthogonal-polygonal, as perceived from the exterior, and the organic, which produces a series of spatial surprises in the interior. 41(fig.10) It is a secret world that is intended by Herzog de Meuron with a suggestive, almost labyrinthine character. 42 On the path through the five storeys, the complexity of the interior space arises not only from the angular intersection of the individual houses but also from the integration of a second geo metrical concept.43 All of the staircases are integrated into expansive, winding organic volumes that figuratively eat their way through the various levels of the building like a worm, sometimes revealing fascinating visual relationships between the various houses, at other times blocking the view.44 The individual houses, which have the general characteristics of a display space, are conceived as abstract elements.45 With just a few exceptions, only the gable ends are glazed, and the structural volumes seem to have been shaped with an extrusion press.46 An important feature of the VitraHaus is the glassed end gables(fig.11); a feature which gives the house two personalities.47 By day the surrounding countryside appears to be drawn into the interior and to become almost a part of the decoration; in contrast, however, when darkness falls, the illuminated interior of the building glows from within, while its physical structure seems to dissipate.48 The rooms open up; the glazed gable ends turn into display cases that shine across the Vitra Campus and into the surrounding countryside.49 D) Furnishings and Ornamentation: The philosophy of Vitra Home Collection is to provide inspirational ideas for individuals home and their own taste in design rather than an interior design system or a homogeneous product line.50 Vitra Home Collection wishes to inspire customers to furnish their home as a process of collage of products and objects according to one s individual preferences and circumstances.51 To allow one to be inspired, and encourage to explore and heighten their sense of design, the interior of the overall space is very simple and furnishings are used as minimal as possible.52 The interior walls are finished in white which gives priority to the furniture displays and allow the characteristics of furniture presents its fullest .53 Since the space is used to showcase the retail furniture, series of wall shelving and signage are used to display.54 The white shelves are mounted in different levels with colourful signage to categorize the types of Charles and Ray Eames chairs into plastic, wire, aluminu m, and ply wood groups.55 The rugs or different variety of floor furnishings are used to give the boundary to the additional furniture displayed on the floor.56 The spot lightings are mounted in the ceiling as ambient light as well as to emphasize the products.57 Since there are minimal use of ornamentations, the abstract structural volumes interacting through the space and the glazed gable ends adds rhythm to the space.58 The high ceiling, white finishes, light wood floors, and large windows give spacious feeling to the space.59 Each house has a touch screen catalogue(fig.12) where each visitor can insert their VitraHause keycard and browse through Vitra s catalogue, purchase a product on a spot or learn about particular design or designer.60 The Vitra Classic Collection also features the Photo me La Chaise Armchair which is set of a La Caise Armchair by Charles and Ray Eames with a camera that allows visitors to have memorable photo time upon their visit to the VitraHaus.61 The photo can be stored in a personal VitraHause keycard and can be emailed later.62 E) Functions and Signification: Since the company Vitra is a manufacturer and retailer company that acquired licenses for the designs of Charles and Ray Eames in 1951, it is not a surprise to see that one of the showrooms in VitraHaus was dedicated to the designs of Eames.63 The Charles and Ray Eames showroom functions as a space that showcases the works of Charles and Ray Eames in different range of groups.64 The groups are categorized by the materials used in the making of the chairs which includes but not limited to; plastic, wire, aluminum, and ply wood.65 As mentioned earlier, the deliberate intention of the building was to grant an overview of the surrounding landscape, the campus as well as an overview of the Home Collection by constructing a vertically oriented structure with a small footprint.66 This has been illustrated in the Charles and Ray Eames showroom with large window that has an overview of the campus and the opening for the spiral stair case allows an overview of the Home Collection on lower floors.67 The philosophy of the Vitra Home Collection also has been demonstrated successfully in the space.68 The Vitra Home Collection s intention was to provide inspirational ideas for individuals own taste in design so one can furnish their home as a process of collage of products and objects according to one s individual preferences and circumstances.69 This philosophy is successfully delivered through minimal interior design of the space.70 It allowed the unique characteristics of each chairs to be presented in its fullest with the contrast of the white wall.71 This contrast and display almost creates an imagery of pallets of colourfull paints on a white canvas which inspires visitors to explore and imagine their own design of space.72 The special photograph set and digital catalogue also adds excitement and convenience to the visit.73 The space that is solely dedicated in respect of the design classic, with the company s philosophy of provide a space that can inspire one to build and develop their own design world.74 This suggests that the space not only functions as a showroom, but it also functions as a space for an education, preservation of stories, personal knowledge and to be one s muse.75 F) Designer s Sources/Inspirations/Influences/Precedents: The concept of the VitraHaus contains two direct quotations of the themes that appear repeatedly in the oeuvre of Herzog de Meuron: the theme of the archetypal house and the theme of stacked volumes.76 Herzog de Meuron has aimed not for virtuosity but innovation, looking always to the broader culture and art for inspiration.77 Referring to Andy Warhol, Jacques Herzog has said, He used common Pop images to say something new. That is exactly what we are interested in: to use well known forms and materials in a new way so that they become alive again. 78 Their influences of the archetypal house and theme of stacked volumes can be seen in many of their work from precedents to future projects that are in progress.79 The Goetz Collection, in Munich 1989-1992 (fig.13), St. Jakob Turm in Basel 2005-2008 (fig.14), and Rue des Suisses in Paris 1996-2000 (fig.15) are one of the precedents that has been designed by Herzog and de Meuron.80 Another form of their precedents study can be found at the Herzog and de Meuron Exhibition at the Walker Art Centre in November 2000 to February 2001.81 The exhibition included from material studies to technical drawings and from initial models to full-scale prototypes(fig.16).82 Here, many prototypes of stack up of geometrical shapes can be found.83 In VitraHaus, it was especially appropriate since the primary purpose of the five-storey building is to present furnishings and objects for the home.84 Due to the proportions and dimensions of the interior spaces ? the architects use the term domestic scale ? the showrooms are reminiscent of familiar residential settings.85 Architect Jacques Herzog, naturally, sees the situation somewhat differently.86 For Herzog, the project was a chance to get away from development driven architecture and a rare opportunity to complete an author driven project.87 Through the stacking and interlacing you not only create a multitude of new forms and architectural spaces but achieve a wonderful paradox: a simple, familiar house design which appears complex on account of the numerous intersections.88 This perceived complexity is further enhanced by the combination of the external orthogonal-polygonal form and the more organic internal form which results, principally, from the spiral staircases and occa sional open spaces and small side windows.89 Principally the black exterior allows the effect of floating houses by allowing the structure to merge with the darkness.90 In addition the anthracite of the VitraHaus contrasts with the brilliant white of Frank Gehrys neighbouring Vitra Design Museum.91

Friday, September 20, 2019

Sociological Theories on Crime and Deviance

Sociological Theories on Crime and Deviance Sociologists investigate the effects of society on criminal and deviant behaviour and seek to understand individuals and their situations. They do this by gathering and utilizing information on age, gender, social class, race and ethnicity. Crime is specifically associated with behaviors that break the formal written laws of any given society; for example, British law states that seatbelts must be worn whilst driving a car. Deviance describes behaviors which infringe cultural norms and values but do not violate any written law; for instance, lying is considered by most individuals as wrong but is not against the law, unless while under oath in a court of law. As individuals even if we disagree with them we are required to abide by societies norms, values and laws. It is useful to think of deviance as a wide category of which crime is smaller part (sociology in perspective, p583) Individuals construct and learn how to fit into society through socialization within our cultures. Correct behavior, or norms and values, are learned through interaction with our family, peers and institutions, such as the education system. Norms are socially acceptable ways of behaving in any given situation, such as knowing we should be quiet in libraries. Values are the fundamental beliefs which underpin a community or society and provide the general principles for human behavior, such as the belief that stealing is wrong; as in the case of stealing, values often become laws. These norms and values and therefore behaviours considered deviant vary widely throughout history, societies, communities and cultures. For example, while one family may overlook belching at the dinner table another may be disgusted by such behavior. Moreover in Chinese culture belching during dinner is considered good manners and a sign of appreciation of the meal, Kwintessential [online]. Therefore, how behavior is regarded depends on the perspective of the people concerned. According to Becker from the perspective of Labelling Theory, no actions are by nature criminal or deviant but instead depends on the norms created by any given society. Therefore, deviance is only deviance if labelled as such through the process of interaction in which meaning is established (Sociology in perspective, pg 604). An example of this idea of labeling is public nudity; overall it is not wrong to be nude but society imposes strict rules on nudity in public places. If brave enough to go nude in publ ic you can be certain that the reactions of others would support this theory. In contrast some tribal communities such as those found in South America and Africa still dress in very little and would react little to public nudity. The idea that killing is wrong, as a fundamental human value, is a good example of how relative our belief systems are. Throughout history cultures such as the Aztecs carried out human sacrifice for their religious beliefs mnsu.edu [on line] and the religious sacrifice of animals still happens in some tribal communities today. Norms and values can become distorted and individuals may resort to stealing or even killing if there is a breakdown of norms, values or regulations. This breakdown of values shows in such cases as mercy killings and assisted suicides; individuals experience feelings of turmoil over their fundamental values and beliefs. There is much debate on the subject of assisted suicide being made legal in Britain, as is the case in countries such as Switzerland and the Netherlands, ask.com [online]. Also stealing is considered wrong by most individuals but again these values are easily distorted, as in the case of hurricane Katrina, Wikipedia [online]. Individuals, who had never stolen, were doing so because they were not able to attain essentials such as food and water, and it was not clear if the normal rules applied. Emile Durkheim, the Emile Durkheim Archive [online] investigated this breakdown and lack of social and moral norms and defined the term anomie. Individuals can deviate involuntarily as well as deliberately; for instance, those suffering from disorders such as Tourettes syndrome have little control over what might be considered deviant language. Whereas someone that steals a car attains their label of deviant through their own deliberate actions Subcultures are often regarded as deviant, for example, Mormon communities live relatively peacefully within wider society yet are often assigned as deviants. In contrast, subcultures such as criminal gangs are less compatible with wider society and cause social disharmony, therefore they attain their deviant label through deliberate actions. These subcultures have their own sets of norms and values to which they abide, these may not conform to the views of wider society but they are perfectly acceptable within their own cultures. Furthermore, individuals may be considered deviant because of their beliefs or sexuality. It could be argued than most religions consider their own beliefs as right and others as wrong. Homosexuality is considered to be deviant by some religions, cultures and individuals but not by others. Until the early 20th century the Siwans of North America expected all normal males to engage in homosexual intercourse, moreover they considered those that refused to be peculiar. In contrast the Rwalar Bedouins considered homosexuality as so abnormal that they put the participants to death. Functionalists argue that we need deviance to bring about social change; for example, suffragettes of the late 19th Century went to prison for their beliefs and helped to bring about womans right to vote. In some societies today such as Saudi Arabia women still do not have voting rights, wiki answers [online]. The plight of the suffragettes could also be used to emphasize a fundamental issue raised by Marxists which is, crime is the product of inadequate social conditions (Sociology in Perspective pg 608) The study of crime and sociology together seeks to understand why some individuals turn to crime and how society as a whole can prevent it. There are many types of crime which fall under three broad categories. The more physical crimes such as mugging and assault fall under Blue-collar crimes. Evidence shows that these types of crimes are most likely to be carried out by the lower or working classes; whereas white-collar crimes such as fraud and embezzlement are most likely to be carried out by the more affluent. Lastly, victimless crimes are crimes that are against the law, but no victim is seen to exist, such as Prostitution. Sociologist use statistics to obtain evidence that enables them to determine social trends such as those discussed above. Statistics can help to identify high crime areas which in turn may be used to help authorities such as the police service to reduce such crime. Lastly statistics are used to compile information for the public, such as advice on taking precautions against crime. However it is generally agreed that crime statistics are seriously flawed and it has been argued that they reveal more about the process and recording of crime than the extent of crime itself; the way police record incidents sometimes changes and so distorts information. The main difficulty is that statistics are derived from only reported crimes, British Crime Surveys show that only around 30% of crime is reported to the police (Sociology pg 181) therefore most crime goes unreported giving a unrealistic view of crime rates. There are many reasons that these crimes may go unreported, for example, people may not report crimes that they deem private or shameful such as domestic abuse. Sometimes a lack of faith in the police may prevent individuals from reporting crime. Also, some crimes go unnoticed, such as stealing from the workplace or drug dealing. Some crimes are more likely to be reported than others, which further distorts crime figures. Lastly, it has been argued that the poli ces own discretion on where to police, who to arrest and which category a crime fits can distort crime statistics. Consequently, statistics are difficult to interpret and questions should always be asked as to what they tell us and what other information should be considered when trying to extract valid information. Subsequently sociologists use other information to analyse the amount of crime in society. Self report studies involve confidential questionnaires that invite a sample of respondents to voluntarily record whether or not they have committed any of a list of offences in a particular time period. Those in favor of self-report studies would argue that they are a good method of determining the social characteristics of criminals but critics suggest they may be unreliable due to the participants exaggerating their answers or not admitting to committing criminal acts. Also the data may be biased as criminals may be less likely to answer questionnaires which may distort the information. It is argued that Crime Surveys or Victim Surveys provide a more accurate measurement of the level of crime in society, because they include hidden crime such as crimes that have not been reported to, or recorded by the police. Also their method of gathering data is consistent and is unaffected by changes in reporting or recording practices that can often hinder police statistics. Critics argue that Crime surveys still underestimate crime levels do to arbitrarily capping the number of crimes one can be victimized by in a given year; this capping can produce an unrealistic measurement in such cases as repeated domestic abuse. Crime surveys are also criticized for excluding under sixteens and those that live in communal establishments, such as nursing homes and university halls of residence. Lastly crime surveys fail to record crimes against victimless crimes such as drug trafficking, crimes against commercial premises or vehicles and because they are victim surveys murder and manslaug hter. Understanding crime and deviance is important as lower crime rates have positive effects on society; for example property values improve and money saved in the police or prison services could be made available for other social projects such as the education system.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Creative Story: Deadlock :: essays research papers

Creative Story: Deadlock "Bzzz! Bzzz!" The alarm went off, and Susan Calvin rolled over. It was 6:30 in the morning, and RoboTimerâ„ ¢ had done its job admirably, waking her up to the second of the time that it had been factory-programmed. Unfortunately, it hadn't been set to the correct date, and when it announced "Saturday, December 14th! Good morning!" in a load cheery tone, she groaned out load with the realization that it was Saturday, and after that affair with the hyperdrive motor, she wanted to sleep in, since it she had just come back to earth. "I hate this stupid robot!" she yelled out loud, then suddenly closed her mouth. For Susan Calvin had just remembered that her pact with the satans, as she thought of them, known to the robotics world as the team of Powell and Donovan. She stretched, rolled out of bed, and went downstairs, wrapping a robe around her as she went, to get some coffee. "Well, since I'm already up, I might as well take a look at the rest of those Rasssjemani-Quazaric-Smith Equations and see why they were causing all those robots to go psycho," she thought. "Good thing that U.S. Robots and Mechanical Men hushed up that little incident, I'd be out of a job if the whole world, the xenophobic and primally-fearful lot of them, knew about that!" As she got out and buttered her toast, she mulled the day ahead of her in her mind. Weekends were never truly weekends for Susan Calvin, as she was forced to work for most of the weekend, with her only respite being Sunday, which she was allowed to come in an hour late for. However, she usually found herself working late into the night on Sundays, out of an artificially induced guilt that she knew was not real, but could do nothing to correct. After being driven to work (working for the company that produced every MechTaxiâ„ ¢ in existence did have some perks after all), greeting the doorman, and going up to her office, Susan Calvin was ready to look at those equations! She only needed a small period of time to warm up, and the wakeup-breakfast-come to work routine sufficed. Almost as soon as she had sat down to work, the Founder of U.S. Robots came in and said, "I need to speak with you, Calvin. There's been more reports in across the nation of those psycho robots, all of them with positronic brains built using the Rasssjemani-Quazaric-Smith Equations. We will be ruined, and drawn and quartered by the masses if we don't start hushing this up again and

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Free Essays: Destructive Competition Exposed in Cantors Dilemma :: Cantors Dilemma Essays

Destructive Competition Exposed in Cantor's Dilemma Competition is often useful as a means of motivation. However, in the scientific world, competition has the potential to cause many scientists to forget their main purpose in research. The main goal of scientific research is to develop knowledge that will better society. When scientists work together to help each other reach a common goal, science is working as it should. However, with so much competition to be the best scientist, make the most money, and possibly win the Nobel Prize, it is difficult for scientists to share ideas. Many scientists are very secretive. Carl Djerassi, a world famous scientist, describes this competition in his fictional novel, Cantor's Dilemma. In his novel, he demonstrates the secrecy that competition encourages when two scientists, Cantor and Stafford, complete an important experiment. Cantor does not want to publish the full experimental details right away. He explains, "No, I'd like to string this out a bit. Just a preliminary communication first, without the experimental details, so that nobody can jump on the bandwagon right away." Scientists are very concerned with the idea that another scientist may get hold of their work and claim it as his or her own. In Cantor's Dilemma, Cantor decides to which journal he will send his manuscript based on his prior knowledge of referees. Referees review the experiment and pass it along to other scientists for verification of the results. He did not want an American referee to leak the news. Therefore, he sent the manuscript to London where an American referee would not have the opportunity to see the article. Many scientists adopt other people's ideas as their own. Surprisingly, this often happens unintentionally. Djerassi describes grant requests in Cantor's Dilemma. When a grant request is sent in, most of the people on the review board are the scientist's competition. Since they are dealing with ideas and not completed work, the review board has the opportunity to steal ideas. Cantor describes that, "[Members of the review board] can't help but remember what [they] read, and after a while, say a few months or even weeks later, [they] forget where [they] first saw it and gradually [they] think it's their own idea." For this reason, most scientists do not give many details when they are applying for a grant. Competition also can influence a scientist into producing fraudulent results.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Analyzing Internet Sources

The first and more important thing I learned was to look for credible sources. One way to do this is to look for bias and opinion. You should look for sources that are based solely on facts and will not attempt to shape your opinion of the topic when you read it. Another thing is to make sure you find your information in other sources to verify it is true and correct. Remember that it is difficult to spot credible sources online. Another thing to keep on mind are legal issues regarding copyright and plagiarism. Just because something is online does not mean it is unprotected. I will use these practices by making sure that I do more extensive research when I find something online. Just because it is there doesn’t make it true. I want to stay free of any problems of that nature and make my work reflect my abilities as a student. How can you determine if the information on a website is reputable and worthwhile for a research paper? Why is Wikipedia not an acceptable academic source? You can determine if the information is reputable and worthwhile by first looking at the URL. Most of the time if it ends with . edu or . gov it will be a good one. Also, another good thing to do is to research the authors and their credentials. You want to know who is writing this information and how qualified they really are. Another good tip is to look at the date. Let’s say you are writing about something that happened recently. There can be new developments on the story daily and you want all your information to be up to date and correct. Wikipedia is not an acceptable academic source because it is an open source of information. That information is not monitored at any time and can be posted by anybody. Some people even go on Wikipedia and say they are an anonymous writer. How can you know it’s true if you don’t know who wrote it?

Monday, September 16, 2019

The Concern For Global Sustainability Issues Environmental Sciences Essay

One of the pressing jobs of the modern universe is planetary warming. This job has been analyzed by diverse research groups, and it is extremely controversial: the two chief positions are that planetary warming emerged due to human actions, and that planetary heating is a natural inclination and does non interfere with human actions ( Weart, 2011 ) . The protagonists of both hypotheses have a assortment of research turn outing their places, and neither of the hypotheses has been to the full proved today. The intent of this paper is to analyse the statements for and against each of these hypotheses related to planetary heating and to analyse the impact of planetary heating on a sustainable universe.1. The concern for planetary sustainability issuesThe job of planetary heating is widely discussed and analyzed presents, and it is normally supposed that the jobs of planetary heating started some 50-70 old ages before ( Turk & A ; Bensel, 2011 ) . Significant grounds of planetary warming emerged in the beginning of twenty-first century: analysis of temperatures clearly indicates that alterations took topographic points during the industrial period. In 2005 the research workers found out that universe oceans have dramatically warmed ( Weart, 2011 ) , which besides aligns with the hypothesis of planetary heating. Figure 1 shows the kineticss of temperature alterations during the recent 200 old ages. Figure 1. Global alterations of temperature during 1880-2000 period ( Smith, 2004 ) Such issues as intensive nursery gas emanations and depletion of ozone bed besides affect planetary clime and lead to climatic alterations. Possible effects of clime alterations might be the thaw of ice caps, deforestation, increased methane emanations and unexpected climatic alterations due to reconfigured pelagic circulation ( Masih, 2010 ) . Other utmost conditions events and rise of the sea degrees worldwide pose more menaces to the humanity. Climatic alterations might increase the possibility of the natural catastrophes, such as hurricanes, storms, heat moving ridges, drouths and inundations. Among a assortment of issues which should be considered to construct a sustainable universe in the conditions, there are the alterations in rainfall forms, increasing possibility of high temperatures and heat moving ridges, perceived badness of storms and hurricanes, and increased alterations of infective disease forms in the development states ( Masih, 2010 ) . All domains of human life, p articularly agribusiness, fabricating industries, wellness attention and building have to be ready to turn to the alterations, and in order to make sustainability, the solutions should be developed before important jobs with the bing methods emerge.2. Arguments for the hypothesis of natural global-warmingThe job of clime alteration is equivocal. There are a assortment of factors which might hold an impact on climatic conditions, and it is true that in the history of the Earth there have been dramatic alterations of temperature and other climatic conditions which did non associate to human activities ( Kump, 2011 ) . It is barely possible to set up cause-and-effect relationships between climatic alterations and the merchandises of human activity because purposeful scientific research on the jobs of environment is no more than 200 old ages old, which is non a important period to calculate the planetary alterations. The Earth has experienced important fluctuations of temperatures durin g its long-run history ( Kump, 2011 ) , and the humanity merely lacks grounds to turn out that climatic and temperature alterations are significantly associated with human activities. There is clear statistical grounds indicating out to the increased solar activity during the first half of the twentieth century, and greater volcanic activity. Khandekar, Murty and Chittibabu ( 2005 ) besides mention the relationship between the 11-year rhythm of solar activity, behavior of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the stratosphere. The bulk of bing climatic phenomena can be explained by these interrelatednesss, and even certain anticipations of the rainfall tendencies and natural catastrophes can be predicted utilizing this theoretical account. The analysis of physical grounds ( such as ice nucleuss, tree rings, dust plumes, and even the analysis of prehistoric small towns and algae skeletons ) provided by Singer and Avery ( 2007 ) along with human records and memories of the ice age and medieval warming show that planetary heating has been witnessed every 1500 old ages, and human-induced activities can non significantly change this tendency.3. Arguments for the hypothesis of human-induced planetary heatingSupporters of the human-induced theory of planetary heating have identified the nursery consequence aa‚ ¬ † addition of planetary temperatures due to turning concentration of specific gases in the ambiance of the Earth. These gases, particularly C dioxide, gaining control heat or infrared energy and keep warmer clime on the planet ( Turk & A ; Bensel, 2011 ) . The ocean H2O does non absorb big per centum of C dioxide, so big concentrations of C dioxide in the ambiance are likely to take to the addition of planetary temperatures. One more alarming effect of human activities is the depletion of ozone bed. Ozone is destructed by solar radiation in the ambiance, but it is re-created in natural manner. However, ozone can besides be destructed by Cl. Human-induced chemical compounds ( CFCs ) which contain Cl are really stable ; they can be therefore carried to the stratosphere and increase the velocity of ozone devastation. This external influence might interrupt the natural balance and consequence in the lessening of ozone bed ( make ozone holes ) . The denseness of ozone was analyzed in item in the 1980s, and scientists found important grounds of the decrease of ozone bed ( Turk & A ; Bensel, 2011 ) . Anticipated effects of human-induced planetary heating call the world to action and impulse to rethink the major ingestion processes taking topographic point in the modern society ( Weart, 2011 ) .DecisionThere is clear grounds that human activities can add to the climatic alterations ( Turk & A ; Bensel, 2011 ) , and uncontrolled enlargement and production are really likely to make conditions for environmental calamity, even if the chief cause of planetary heating is natural. Therefore, the humanity should concentrate chiefly non on seeking for the causes of planetary heating, but on future response to possible environmental challenges, and on making a sustainable society ( Rowland, 2010 ) . It should be noted that although there exist two opposing point of views on the job of planetary heating, both sides stress the importance of sustainability. Rowland ( 2010 ) gives grounds that due to human activities the regenerative capacity of the biosphere has been exceeded, and human existences are moving as the chief factor altering the Earthaa‚ ¬a„?s ecosystem now ( Turk & A ; Bensel, 2011 ) . This fact increases the environmental duty of the world, and relates to the issues of planetary heating in peculiar. The humanity should therefore halt debating whether the planetary heating is human-induced or non, and seek to cut down ain consequence on clime alterations. It can be done by making sustainable development schemes for both developed and developing states, and besides turn toing the jobs of population growing and extractive industries needed to keep the endurance of a big figure of people ( Rowland, 2010 ) .

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Northanger Abbey Characters Essay

Second of which, it is also important to note that the social identity theory claims that every person enacts multiple identities that functions in every social context such as for instance, mother, professor, volunteer, that could be drivers of buying actions (p. 11). The behavioral decision theory that is under the umbrella of the social identity theory claims that choices of consumers are often made in accordance with their attribute values. Closely related to this is the attitude theory which emphasizes consumer expectancies and evaluations on a particular product belief (p.11-12). The figure below presents consumer goals in terms of their buying preferences. It could be seen that the core reason that determines why such and such consumers buy certain products is primarily due to their life theme and values. In effect of these, their life themes and values deeply influenced how they are going to deal with their life projects, current concerns and consumption intentions. Finally, the benefits sought and the feature preferences are also considered as the end goal of the being and doing hierarchy. Figure 3:   A hierarchical model of consumer goals Source: Ratneshwar, Mick and Huffman (2000, p. 14) Life themes and values are the personal ideas of being and the highest goal in a person’s framework. A terminal value is a belief that is considered as an end in itself such as freedom r wisdom. These types of values are like existential concerns that every customer has to deal with their daily lives which are rooted on their personal histories (p. 15). Themes and values in one’s life are the core conceptions of the self. These values are deeply embedded, interconnected and central in order to maintain integrity of the self-system. Corollary with this, these values are relatively stable and accessible as well and could be activated easily in almost any circumstance. As such it could be said that themes and values serve as a yardstick or standard guide to lower-order goals and actions (p. 17). Current concerns such as activities, tasks or quests are also vital in a consumer’s buying behavior. For instance, activities or life projects that a customer wants to engage into like gardening, being an animal rights advocate and the likes influences them to buy certain products that are in accordance to such goals (p.18). 2. 5 CSR and Purchasing Decisions The link between CSR and consumer purchasing decisions is something that has a direct relationship. It has been said by Varadarajan and Menon (1988) that it is very relevant for consumers to first be educated on a particular company’s level of social responsibility before they could incorporate such on their pattern of behavior. This is important so that consumer purchasing decisions could be affected by the CSR programs that a company is employing. The notion of cause related marketing which is a way for companies to support non profit organizations by allotting a certain percentage of their sales to the former is one of the most effective way of doing the aforementioned (Mohr and Webb, 2001, p. 45). Albeit, it should be noted that although CSR has been highly exercised by most companies, the biggest inhibitor of the latter’s success is lack of consumer awareness on a particular company’s CSR program. However even if this is the case, there is a growing evidence that a lot of consumers are desiring to know more about how companies conducts their businesses. The purchasing information that was given by Council on Economic Priorities in 1994 tells that consumer interest on CSR has been steadily growing (Mohr and Webb, 2001, p. 45). 2. 6 Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty Customer satisfaction is difficult to understand and it is define in different ways. Many researchers argued that there is a difference between the customer satisfaction, which is gained from tangible products and intangible services. The difference is because of the intangibility of the services and the failure to separate production and consumption. Therefore, customer satisfaction from services and goods may come from and influenced by different factors. Hence, should be considered separately and differently (Veloutsou, C. et al, 2005). Two issues should be considered when looking customer satisfaction in services whether it is conceptualized or transaction specific or cumulative (Hoest, V. and Knie-Andersen, M. , 2004). Customer satisfaction has been perceived as not the sole determining factor for a loyal customer base (Griffin and Herres, 2002, p. 2). During the 1980s and the 1990s, the notion of customer satisfaction which is weighed in terms of providing quality customer service and excellence has been perceived as providing good financial results and repeat purchase. A study conducted by Forum Corporation (Stum and Thiry, 1991, p. 34) claimed that 40% of the customers who participated in the study claimed to be satisfied with a particular product found it easy to shift brands without any hesitation. As such, it has been perceived by Griffin and Herres (2002; p.4-5) that the true measurement that should be used in repeated business is Customer Loyalty. Customer loyalty focuses more on consumer behaviour than attitude. When a particular client is loyal to a brand, such a person is more particular in conducting purchase behaviour that is relatively more non random. A client who is loyal to a brand has developed a particular justified belief on which and what to buy from whom. More importantly, the notion of loyalty implies a purchase that occurs for a particular duration, which does not occur less than twice. Also, it could be significantly noted that the decision to purchase could be made by one or two or more individuals. As such, it could be the case that the decision making to buy a particular product could be a compromise, hence explaining one of the key reasons for one’s loyalty for a particular unit. There are two important factors that are closely associated with brand loyalty and these are customer retention and total share of customer. The former describes the duration in which a particular company has the business of a client. The rate of customer share on the other hand is equivalent to the percentage of a customer’s budget that is spent with the firm. For instance, a company is said to have 100% share of a customer’s budget if the latter spends his or her entire budget with a particular firm. As such it could be said that customer retention and percentage of customer’s budget is very important; however, there might be instances wherein a customer is prevented by certain laws to purchase just from one vendor such as government accounts. Gustafsson and Johnson (2000; p.50) presented a model which would effectively measure customer satisfaction. Satisfaction in terms of the model is perceived as â€Å"customer’s overall evaluation of the purchase and consumption experience with a product, service or provider†. The model presented by Gustafsson and Johnson (2000) appears to be different from transaction-specific portrayals of customer satisfaction that normally leads to repurchase. The model focuses on the importance of Customer Lens or the perspective of a customer on a particular brand, most especially how it benefits them. The lens of the customer will allow the organization to take a view of their product as it appears on the market place and not really how their organization perceives it (Gustafsson and Johnson, 2000, p. 5). It has been argued by Gustafsson and Johnson   (2000) that customers’ decisions to repurchase a particular product are deeply influenced by their overall purchase and consumption from a particular company or brand. In addition, customer satisfaction could pave the way for an enhanced reputation and an increase of brand equity for a particular organization. Such in turn could further attract customers that could have further increase the market share of a particular brand. 2. 7 The Body Shop International, PLC Values The Body Shop International PLC has five corporate values: Against Animal Testing, Support Community Trade, Activate Self Esteem, and Protecting our Planet (The Body Shop International plc a, 2007). 2. 7. 1 Against Animal Testing The company strongly advocated for the banning of the test of cosmetics on animals. In addition, the company prides itself due to its strict compliance of the internationally recognized Humane Cosmetics Standards (The Body Shop International plc b, 2007). As such it has been implementing a so-called â€Å"fixed cut-off date† to all of their ingredients. Such means, that the company does not and will never test their cosmetics on animals, hence calling it an â€Å"immovable fixed date† (The Body Shop International plc c, 2007). More importantly, the company has also assured that their products could also be suitable for vegetarians. This means that the company does not use any ingredient that is perceived to cause harm to animals (The Body Shop International plc c, 2007). In effect of this, the Body Shop has been awarded on 2006 as the Best Cruelty-free Cosmetics by the PETA (People for the Ethical Treatments of Animals). (The Body Shop International plc b, 2007). The advocate of Body Shop to ban animal testing is stretched even by the company supporting researches that could bring about alternatives against animal testing. In 2004, the Body Shop Foundation has awarded the Centre for Alternatives to Animal Testing at John Hopkins University ? 20 000 in order to support the university’s research in finding other ways to test cosmetics   (The Body Shop International plc b, 2007). 2. 7. 2 Support Community Trade Body Shop’s support for community trade focuses on the use of natural ingredients and handcrafted products from skilled people and was brought for a reasonable prize for more than 20 years on over 24 countries and 31 suppliers (The Body Shop International plc e, 2007). In another perspective, community fair trade provides workers in marginalized countries to earn a reliable wage that could help them build their futures (The Body Shop International plc d, 2007). More importantly, the community trade that Body Shop made from the aforementioned also provides the company the assurance that it has been purchasing ingredients in which they know where came from (The Body Shop International plc d, 2007). As such, it could be said that the company has been spreading not only its monetary assets but also its intellectual investments as well fairly among countries most especially to the ones which needed it most (The Body Shop International plc d, 2007). 2. 7. 3 Activate Self Esteem Body shop also deeply upholds basic feminist values. Their motto: â€Å"Know your mind, love your body†; communicates the individuality of all women and the disregard to false promises, hype, and jargons of cosmetics and a fixed standard of beauty (The Body Shop International plc f, 2007). More importantly, the body shop emphasizes the importance of self awareness, self-confidence, self-growth and self-acceptance. As such it deems self respect while focusing on diversity, acceptance and empowerment (The Body Shop International plc g, 2007). 2. 7. 4 Protecting our Planet Protecting the planet is the last among the five core values of Body Shop. This value is deeply connected on the advocate of the company in using natural ingredients. Body Shop believed that through the use of natural ingredients and through helping on the ban against cosmetic test on animals, they are helping to protect the environment (The Body Shop International plc h, 2007). Furthermore, Body Shop also supports the use of renewable sources through the use of Forest Stewardship Council certified wood products. I

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Hereford Plays series Essay

After the complex events of the scene before, Marco jumps in to try and regain his brother’s dignity. This is his family and he cannot let Rodolpho be disgraced like that or be hurt; whether it was just a stagger or not, Eddie was out of order and Marco won’t allow it. As Catherine and Rodolpho dance, Marco discusses a ‘friendly’ challenge: ‘Marco takes a chair and places it in front of Eddie’. Eddie has to lift the chair as far up as he can with one hand holding it by the bottom of one leg. As Eddie kneels and grasps the leg he lifts it by an inch whereas when Marco tries it he lifts it all the way above his head. This simple action obviously had a motive behind it: to warn Eddie to lay off his brother but Eddie consciously knows that he won’t give up that easily. Marco has shown that Eddie may think he’s more of a man than Rodolpho but Marco is more of a man than Eddie; this event has generally shamed Eddie in his home, which is something this character feels very strongly about as the head of the household. The scene needs a sense of oppositon and competition. In order to emphasise what is to be a true test of strength, the onlookers (Rodolpho, Catherine and Beatrice) need to have complete awareness and support of Marco’s triumph. In this scene you have to visually compare the failure of Eddie in comparison to the triumph of Marco. While Marco is lifting the chair he is struggling and the tension in his neck, face, arms and especially his facial expression is needed to portray not just victory of lifting the chair but the victory of putting Eddie to shame and gaining some respect for his brother. This scene is a turning point in the story because Eddie now knows that if he wants Rodolpho out of his life he’ll may have to take even more extreme measures and the battle has turned from not just putting Catherine off of Rodolpho but to get these immigrants out of his house. It’s important for its visual impact on the audience because its dramatic actions of a fight for strength and self-dignity turns the whole generalisation of the story from a happy family get-together into a potential ‘crime against his (Eddie’s) family and the Sicilian community’ (as quoted from synopsis/pri cis of the book). Its also important because it shows Marco’s justified slyness; justified because he has dishonoured Eddie but only in retaliation to Eddie taking advantage of Rodolpho. As soon as Marco said â€Å"Here†¦ † and started to lift the chair it is the beginning of Eddie’s slowly increasing shame and disgrace. The victory celebration should idealistically be a smiled expression (from Marco) as if to imply to Eddie that no-one messes with his brother or else they’ll answer to him. As director I would issue the following instructions: Catherine: you’re enjoying your dance with Rodolpho and you are nai ve as to what might be going on with Eddie and Marco so keep off guard and treat the situation as though its just a bit of fun between them. Beatrice: you have realised that Eddie feels discomforted at the weak position that he has been put in; however you believed that he deserved it and you are just hoping that Eddie has learned his lesson and will not interfere again. Act supportive at his distress but don’t destroy is ride by talking about it too much (as your character would naturally do) Eddie: you have to accept Marco’s offer very boldly and confidently as Catherine might be watching and you don’t want to back down now. Your facial expression has to show repressed rage at Marco; grind your teeth and be silent to keep your pride, you want everyone else in the room to feel that what has happened doesn’t mean or prove anything so get on as though it didn’t happen although you’re still much aware of the damage that Marco has done Marco: you are proud of what you have accomplished but you’re not going to look like a show off; if you win gracefully it will add to Eddie’s shame which is something you want to do. Your facial expression should say ‘ I’m triumphant and taking it well’ In conclusion, Eddie cares about his family and the responsibilities that come with it. He was strict in the upbringing of Catherine and had the utmost respect for his wife. Even though he made a fool of himself and died just for his name (his dignity) we must recognise he had a strong and defiant will or view that was his own and that he fought to uphold, such as his ‘primitive man’s view’ that there must be a law that keeps Catherine from marrying Rodolpho because he is supposedly a homosexual. The bottom line is Eddie should have settled for half meaning he brought Catherine up and now it was time to let her go. So in the end, Eddie dies to keep his pride and his ‘name’ but doesn’t even gain the audience’s admiration because his actions were unnecessary. As quoted by E. R. Wood, who wrote the introduction in the Hereford Plays series (1975) publication of ‘A View From The Bridge’, â€Å"To be a tragic hero, you do not have to be in the right; you have to be true to yourself. † So Eddie was guilty of destroying the lives of these immigrants and the only honourable way out was to die.

Friday, September 13, 2019

The cultural change process in British Airways Essay

The cultural change process in British Airways - Essay Example The project begins with the description of the type of change that was brought about in the organization highlighting on the different forces for change. The British Airways have recently embarked on a cultural change program with the focus of transforming the organization into one where innovation, customer focus, and growth would account for the major defining qualities of the organization. The organization has demonstrated immense inefficiency since 1979 arising out of its culture and history. Even though British Airways was to be controlled by the board, the bodies operated autonomously and were least integrated in practice. This was one of the major reasons why there were inefficiencies in operations which became a predominant backlog in the company’s culture and organizational efficiencies. This called for a reorientation program for uplifting and reinforcing the operational culture through the removal of the ever increasing inefficiencies. The cultural change program wa s based on the following five main themes: Performance- Creation of a performance based culture; Colleagues: Engaging workers and employees in British Airways for transforming BA into a high performing workplace, Customers: Focusing all the people in the organization to deliver consistent service to customers; Partnerships: The development and maintenance of world class partnerships with the key internal and external stakeholders of the organization; and Operational efficiency: Driving for continuous improvement both for the short and the long term.       (British Airways, â€Å"A new change programme†). Forces for Change in British Airways Suppliers: The procurement team of the company has recorded and measured risks across the important suppliers. It has presently identified more than 25 numbers of suppliers who, if they ceased to trade with, would lead to the creation of severe operational difficulties. This called for the need to

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Recycled Blackberry Phones Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Recycled Blackberry Phones - Assignment Example This project has been taken into concern for the purpose of designing an appropriate project management plan for recycled Blackberry phones. For making this project successful, various strategies that have been adopted by the company in the past will be deeply analyzed upon. As a project manager, future plans of actions will be decided based on the past strategies adopted and executed by the company. Also, the potential shareholders who can provide variable amount of contribution in the recycling process will also be identified. As a project manager, it will be one of the primary duties to create a well diversified SMART project scope which can be effectively utilized in the overall recycling process of Blackberry phones. The project will also include a well diversified plan concerning the sequence of activities in a step-by-step process that will be implemented in a timely and orderly manner. In addition, written documents concerning the exact amount of resources that will be requir ed for the execution of the project will be maintained. Moreover, another plan concerning HR will be developed along with the broad criterion that will be adopted for identification the success or the failure of the project (BlackBerry, 2013; Cleland & Ireland, 2006; Verizon Wireless, 2013). Stakeholders These entities may include the employees of Blackberry, suppliers and distributors of raw materials along with finished goods. In addition, certain other stakeholders like the creditors of the company along with the customers whose role are considered to be important in determining the overall profitability of an organization would be taken into concern. ... Stakeholders The stakeholders in this recycling process will include different entities that will directly or indirectly get affected by the project especially in an affirmative manner. These entities may include the employees of Blackberry, suppliers and distributors of raw materials along with finished goods. In addition, certain other stakeholders like the creditors of the company along with the customers whose role are considered to be important in determining the overall profitability of an organization would be taken into concern. Being the project manager, it is quite needed to ensure that various outsourced agencies which can deliver effectual ideas pertaining to the launch of new applications and programs in Blackberry phones are also needed to be included in the list of the potential stakeholders. Specially mentioning, the above identified stakeholders would play an imperative part in developing the overall project management planning procedure and most importantly enhancin g the decision-making procedure by a considerable level. It is expected that the roles which play by the recognized stakeholders would eventually standardize the ongoing viability of the project by a greater extent (Groman, 2007). Project Management Plan This portion of the project management plan would hold the top most priority in successful completion of the project concerning recycled Blackberry phones (Hossenlopp, 2010). In order to execute the plan in an orderly and appropriate manner, a few of the most fitting actions will be undertaken that would provide greater aid in quick start of the project (Hossenlopp, 2010). These actions have been elaborated hereunder. Collecting and arranging all reports relating to the availability

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Civil Society in Malaysia and Thailand Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Civil Society in Malaysia and Thailand - Essay Example The salient nature of the civil society is exemplified when the Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak announced that the Malaysian government was finally going to repeal the draconian Internal Security Act (ISA), sometime in 2013, since the civil society in Malaysia had been agitating for this. It is for this reason that the cause of the civil society is seen as indispensable in reference to Malaysia and Thailand, as shall be seen in the ensuing discussion. Thesis statement Although the significance of the civil society spans socioeconomic and political values, yet the presence and success of civil society activism are totally predicated upon the prevailing political environment, as shall be seen in the case of Malaysia and Thailand. Evaluating the effectiveness of civil society in Southeast Asia The case of the civil society in Southeast Asia has been seen to be relatively successful, as far as both Thailand and Malaysia are concerned. This is particularly the case with the democrati zation of politics. In Thailand, the implementation of the new constitution in 1997 paved way for more robust participation in the Thailand politics by the civil society. It is for this reason that since 1997, the country has witnessed a steady rise in the recognition of civil liberties and freedoms such as freedom of speech, press, and association (Liow, 178). In Malaysia, the presence and activity of the civil society have also been vibrant, but as late as 2008. One of the testaments to the success of the civil society in Malaysia is the rising level of public awareness and participation on governance, following the country’s 12th elections which were held on March 2008. This development can be considered a success since one of the roles of the civil society is conscientious the people on the need to participate in political processes. BERSIH 2.0, BERSIH 3.0 and Himpunan Hijau are some of the proofs that underscore the success and vibrant initiatives of the civil society in Malaysia. These incidents are significant since they show that the Malaysians are departing from politically retrogressive ideas such as tidak apa and tidak tahu. Where and when civil society has been most effective, least effective and how the differences can be account for The differences in the degree of effectiveness of the civil society can be said to be occasioned by political developments which have been state-specific. In particular, the fruits attributable to the civil society in Thailand cannot be expected to be as ripe as those of mature democracies since it is only as recent as 1973 when Thailand instituted reforms as a way of inculcating accountability, transparency and good governance. The place of the civil society’s effectiveness rests also on the goodwill that Thailand’s political leaders possess. Specifically, Thailand’s civil society has since 2001 enjoyed the support of the former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Persuasive Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Persuasive - Research Paper Example These camps, housing more than three-quarters of these people, often lack basic amenities. At most camps raw sewage flows in open channels, contaminating everything. Even in the cities, unemployment and poverty are at extremely high levels, but organizations such as the Red Cross/Red Crescent can only deliver the most basic of humanitarian supplies to the Gaza Strip (BBC). And why can't the Red Cross help these people further? Because the Israeli military has built and guards a tall metal fence around the entire area, as well as maintaining a sea blockade. Even the Egyptian side of the border is largely closed, in an attempt to placate the Israeli government. The only official import crossings are maintained by the Israeli army, and often even humanitarian aid and aid workers are not allowed passage (BBC). This state of affairs only exists due to war. In 1967, during the Israeli-Arab war, Israel took the Gaza Strip from Egyptian control, where it had been since the creation of Israel (BBC). It was not until 1994 that governmental control transferred from the Israelis to the Palestinians, and the Israeli military troops were not removed until 2005 (GazaSiege.org). At that time, according to the Israeli government, the occupation of the Gaza Strip by Israel had ended. Rulings from their Supreme Court show that, officially, they feel they have no further responsibility to the people of Gaza (Shany). But once Hamas won the Palestinian elections, the Israeli military tightened an existing blockade around the area, which prevented transport of people and goods, strangled the economy, and led to a â€Å"humanitarian crisis† in 2008 (BBC) None of this even discusses the twenty-three day â€Å"war† in early during which over a thousand civilians were killed, Israel's response to a Palestinian election result (GazaSiege.org). This blockade needs to be broken, and Gaza truly removed from Israeli control for two main reasons: first, such a blockade violates i nternational treaties about the treatment of occupied territories, and second, because of the obvious danger to the people living there. Israel claims that they have a reason to blockade the Gaza strip, mostly to do with political disagreements with Palestine. Israel has tried to â€Å"isolate† and â€Å"control† the Palestinian political group Hamas through control of supplies and people entering the area as well as intensifying mortar and bombing attacks. They have severely limited access to such necessities as cooking fuel and electricity, and have upheld the legality of such actions. Since Gaza is no longer considered â€Å"occupied† by Israel and its population no longer a â€Å"protected people† under those terms, these restrictions do not constitute internationally prohibited â€Å"collective punishment† but instead fall under supposedly legitimate conventions about restrictions placed between nations which are at war (Shany). However, many agencies and individuals around the world have rallied behind the besieged state, as proved by the attempt in during the first week of July this year to break the sea blockade simply to deliver letters of comfort and medical supplies to the people of Gaza (Torchia). Even Israel's own humanitarian aid agencies find these policies despicable (Shany). As they should! Without the ability to import or export goods, the economy of Gaza is