Thursday, November 28, 2019
Opaque and Articulate Design Essay Looking at another field of study, industries also affect the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s sustainability. In a study by Dewick and associates, they analyzed the environmental impacts of the production of yogurt throughout the years. As they have found out, environmental impacts are largely generated from the industrial production of yogurt where waste products and air pollution are included. Nevertheless, no technological advancement has ultimately solved this problem since the process of yogurt production is still the same as the first time it was employed. The authors recommended that new technology should be used to further reduce the environmental impact that yogurt production can cause. The authors believed that for a technological change to happen, it should be accompanied by a social change. It is by accomplishing this dual change that sustainable production can be achieved and thus, resulting to a sustainable community. Products of different industries always have environmental impacts no matter how minute they are. Nevertheless, it is better to assess the negative effects in processing such products. A useful method of obtaining the information needed is the use of environmental life cycle assessment or LCA. In this technique, the authorities try to examine the effects of the product from its birth to its waste disposal after the consumer has used the product well. This can be useful in assessing the sustainability of a community. Nevertheless, the LCA is not perfectly appropriate in evaluating the impact that a product may cause to the environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Opaque and Articulate Design specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Opaque and Articulate Design specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Opaque and Articulate Design specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Self-Assessment Throughout the paper, sustainability has been discussed in detail and its factors in different fields and industries have been tackled. Long journals have been summarized briefly and coherently yet; it would not be enough to just read the paper but journals that were cited as well. A variety of perspectives was employed to explain sustainability and how it will be attained. However, no specific agencies responsible for the implementation of the sustainability design projects were mentioned. It is remarkable that sustainability can have a broad scope of implementation, from the field of arts to industrial science. Academic journals were used in the paper to better communicate the need to initiate sustainable design projects. Nevertheless, it would have been better if the paper have based its arguments on more references rather than the journals listed alone. Sustainability is one way of showing the world that the health of nature matters to us. Sustainable design projects should be initiated and developed to decrease the negative environmental impacts that manÃ¢â¬â¢s creations and existence bring. It does not mean that everyone should find a reliable design project to fund such as those discussed; however, everyone is encouraged to formulate little ways to increase societyÃ¢â¬â¢s sustainability. One does not need to be part of expensive research laboratories to be of help to humanity and the environment. BIBLIOGRAPHY Borgmann, Albert. Ã¢â¬Å"Opaque and Articulate DesignÃ¢â¬ . International Journal of Technology and Design Education 11 (2001): 5-11. Cogdell, Christina. Ã¢â¬Å"Products or Bodies? Streamline Design and Eugenics as Applied BiologyÃ¢â¬ . Design 19, no. 1 (2003): 36-53.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Milton Friedmans Goal of the Firm Milton FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s goal of the firm is viewed by many people as one of the most senseless ideas that have ever been made in the business world. The idea, which made its first appearance in a New York TimesÃ¢â¬â¢ article in 1970, would raise a lot of controversy as many entrepreneurs refuted it for various reasons.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Milton FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Goal of the Firm specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this popular statement, Milton Friedman had expressed his controversial stand that the only purpose behind business activities is to bring profit to shareholders (Carroll Shabana, 2010). Many people viewed this as a provocative statement that can be translated as a greedy perception. Myriad discussions were constantly raised as people in the business world continued to express their criticism on the matter, with majority of them arguing that there is more in business than just generating re venue for the shareholders. As a matter of fact, Milton FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s goal of the firm does not apply to our understanding of the role of business in society. The truth of the matter, however, is that businesses have a large responsibility of taking care of employees, customers, and the society at large. Employees, who happen to be one of the most reliable assets that companies can ever have, deserve to be recognized and taken care of by the businesses they serve. Businesses also have the responsibility of paying tax to relevant government bodies, thus enabling the government to provide public services to the citizens. Companies also have the responsibility of ensuring that certain business essentials and requirements are fulfilled in order for them to thrive and survive in the market. This would have the meaning that the society today expects businesses to offer more than just focusing on maximizing profits and revenues for the shareholders. For example, consumers will always e xpect to see the best in terms of quality and value in everything that they purchase, and it is therefore the responsibility of businesses to ensure that these attributes are fully met.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More importantly, it is also the responsibility of businesses to keep their working environments safe and clean. Some of the most effective ways through which this goal can be achieved is by manufacturing eco-friendly products and by ensuring that factory waste is properly managed. As a matter of fact, governments have a role to play in expanding the Friedman discussion. This way, people will get to understand that businesses do have numerous social responsibilities apart from just making profits for the shareholders (Hammond, 2005). If the sole role of business was to make profits for shareholders as Friedman points out, entrepreneurs will not find p urpose in focusing on any other social responsibility apart from maximizing revenues for their businesses. This, however, would bring serious implications on societies who have always benefitted greatly from the vast social responsibilities offered by businesses in the contemporary world. For example, businesses are arguably the largest source of government revenue, which in turn is used to support communities in various ways. Considering the importance of all these social responsibilities that tend to have a direct impact on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, there is a need for governments to expand the Friedman discussion. This, however, would serve as a platform to convince people that, unlike FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s idea that profits are the sole purpose of all businesses, there are diverse social responsibilities that are played by businesses in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. References Carroll, A. B., Shabana, K. M. (2010). The business case for corporate social responsibility: a review of concepts, r esearch and practice. International JournalÃ of Management Reviews, 12(1), 85-105. Hammond, J. D. (2005). Theory and measurement: causality issues in MiltonÃ Friedmans monetary economics. England: Cambridge University Press.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Milton FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Goal of the Firm specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Ethics Case Anaysis - Essay Example The facts of the case reveals that at the time of SpeakerÃ¢â¬â¢s flight, the diagnosis of his condition corresponded to an untreatable, and even more importantly, and highly contagious form of the tuberculosis (Harrigan, 2010). An airplane is essentially a closed tube with recycled air being circulated within the place during the entire duration of the flight. Therefore, Speaker had knowingly put numerous other patients in danger of counteracting an untreatable, highly contagious and life threatening disease. Not only have the passengers within the place but also the people in their surrounding environment (household, workplace, etc.) been threatened by SpeakerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to take a flight (Morrison, 2011). The principle of beneficence has a very strong relevance in this given situation. Speaker had a moral obligation to act in a manner that promotes the health and wellbeing of others. The right to autonomy comes with a responsibility. Speaker failed to uphold this responsibi lity (Shahian & Normand, 2012). The Centre for Disease Control has acted ethically when it involuntarily quarantined Andre Speaker. The Centre for Disease Control is responsible for making decisions in the larger interest of the public. Even after the differential diagnosis showed that SpeakerÃ¢â¬â¢s tuberculosis is a treatable form of the disease, Speaker still remains a threat to the public health. Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease through the nasal cavity (Harrigan, 2010). The disease is also air borne which raises the degree of threat to the public in a significant manner. For this reason, CDC has acted both ethically and in line with its organizational objective by making the decision to quarantine Andre Speaker (Morrison, 2011). Had CDC left the decision of quarantine up to Speaker, then this would have been unethical. The principle of beneficence has a much stronger relevance in the situation given above than the principle of autonomy. The principle of
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Use of Technology In Your Chosen Profession - Assignment Example After the design is done, manufacturing is done with computer simulations on how the plane will perform under different flying conditions. The aircraft is improved and molded before the final testing to be licensed as safe to fly. Technology is used to develop sophisticated security systems to enable pilots to detect abnormalities during flight and avert disaster. Even when a plane crash has occurs; data recorders kept in the planeÃ¢â¬â¢s black box are consulted to trace the origin of the crash (ICAO, 2010). Such information is vital as it can be used to design new safety features or to avoid crashes due to similar reasons. Pilots use technology for communication while flying. Flying is a high-risk activity and pilots need to be in constant communication with flight control teams to report flight progress and show if there is any problem. Flight control teams use radar and satellite technology to track aircraft. Whenever a plane is lost midair, the ground control teams are able to detect it immediately and take appropriate and timely action to try and find the plane to rescue survivors. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to find survivors due to the impact of plane crashes that usually occur in the sea where passengers drown before any help can get to them. Pilots also use technology to entertain their passengers and make announcements to them regarding the flight. Technology is also used to enhance safety in the airline industry generally. Through the use of computer technology, airport personnel is able to ensure that planes do not collide midair or at the airport.
Monday, November 18, 2019
Movie Review Example merican politics appears to be largely stage managed by the affluent sections of the society, in the climax it portrays a healthy picture of the American politics, where the leaders listen to the voice of their conscience and were the values like honesty, fairness, family bonding and justice manage to thrive over selfishness and untruth. 3. The lesson that this movie tends to convey is that essentially the American politics is value driven. The mechanics and the framework of the American politics and the public expectations are such that they tend to push back the fake and the selfish. Though at a superficial level, many a time it may seem that the privileged sections of the society have a greater say in the political setup, eventually it is the strong undercurrent of integrity and uprightness that always has a final say. 1. Thank You for Smoking, a 2005 film directed by Jason Rietman, is essentially about the exploits of a smooth and smart tobacco lobbyist Nick Naylor who uses his public speaking skills to win support in the favor of smoking. The film depicts the ploys and schemes resorted to by Nick Naylor and his like minded friends to mould and influence the public and political opinion in favor of the causes that happen to be basically harmful to the public health. 2. The view of the American politics as presented in Thank You for Smoking is quiet negative and disturbing. In Thank You for Smoking the American politics comes out as a political system that is vulnerable to being managed and influenced by the people who are influential, powerful and deft public opinion managers. The American public is shown as an unsuspecting victim to the schemes of people who are not averse to lying and using faulty logic. 3. While State of the Union ends in the victory of the essential American values like honesty, integrity and justice, Thank You for Smoking tends to project the victory of the powerful and the unscrupulous over the desired political values and
Friday, November 15, 2019
Unemployment in the UAE: Causes and Effects Table of Contents (Jump to) Analyze the reasons and effect of the unemployment suggest an applicable solutions to cope these problems Evaluate the advantage and disadvantages monetary policy being implement in the chosen country Advantages Disadvantages Monetary policy Find out and explain the effectiveness how to use it to fix unemployment . Monetary Policy: Whats the Most Cost Effective Unemployment Solution?: Using Solutions: Unemployment Benefits: Monetary Policy Risks: 1. Analyze the reasons and effect of the unemployment suggest an applicable solutions to cope these problems Generally because of their oil riches, the economies of the GCC nations have passed through real budgetary and social progressions throughout the previous decades that incorporate the investment blast of the 1970s and early 1980s and the bust of the late 1980s and 1990s. Emulating the sharp build in worldwide oil costs in the 1970s and early 1980s, the dominant presences in these nations reused the windfall oil picks up through liberal welfare framework, and a huge open financing program in foundation, utilities, and essential businesses. In coupled with these arrangements, governments assumed the part of first business resort which inevitably prompted congestion open part and expanded government consumptions on pay rates (Forstenlechner, Rutledge, 2010). Specifically, the administrations of the GCC urged locals to join general society part by offering profits bundles as appealing annuity and social stipends for companions and kids and financed the procurement of lodging, educating whats more wellbeing and essential customer items. Underlying open segment business and pay structures is the social contract of the GCC nations which prompted the grouping of more than 85% of local laborers openly vocation and which, accepted, brought about their underemployment. Generally, broad subsidies that were the impetuses of the social contract made an salary impact that appear to have had a general public wide impact on recreation designs in light of the fact that of social multiplier where the comes back to relaxation builds as more individuals are meeting expectations shorter hours and taking longer vacations (Forstenlechner, Rutledge, 2010).3 In parallel, GCC governments sought after open outskirt arrangements to outside specialists, guaranteeing sufficient supply of work at focused compensation at all ability levels. According to Sherif, (2013)The reservation wages of remote specialists reflecting their normal income in their nation of origin, balanced for commitment to transmit family help also put something aside for speculation in their nation of origin are much lower than the reservation compensation of the nationals at tantamount aptitudes. The double destinations of vigorously sponsoring local wages and livelihood, as a component of the social contract, and seeking after open-fringe work imports arrangements keeping in mind the end goal to keep up aggressiveness prompted the formation of a portioned work markets where locals bunch in the general population area whose profit level is moment and work hours are short while the additionally requesting occupations were left to outside laborers in the private area of the economy that paid significantly lower compensation and requested noticeably more hours (Sherif, 2013). 2. Evaluate the advantage and disadvantages monetary policy being implement in the chosen country Advantages The following is the arrangement of favorable circumstances of the Emiratisation: It adds to the development and manageability of the organizations and makers when they need to depend vigorously on the nearby inhabitants of the nation. The UAE society will be pushed and spread. It backings and helps the development and learning of the UAE nationals for the advancement and profits of the human capital improvement. Disadvantages The real detriment of the Emiratization is the constrained dependence on the livelihood of the UAE nationals (Elasrag, 2014). The private segment is as of now lingering behind general society division and the UAE national are not eager to work in the private part. Monetary policy The Government of the UAE utilizes a dynamic expansionary money related arrangement that is devoted to developing the economy and creating the fancied investment objectives of stable costs, low unemployment and high and managed budgetary development as confirmation by the article gave Dubai plots come back to credit markets. Dubai wants to offer more securities with a specific end goal to fund a more different budgetary method. With more cash under control, Dubai will push ahead with arrangements to expand genuine GDP by expanding government using on things, for example, base and ventures in the flight market. This is a methodology that is in lock-venture with governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ monetary strategy to attain the three economic objectives. While the objective continues as before, the suggestions are more serious and conceivably more tragic. Likewise with financial arrangement, we pick up a finer understanding of how this could conceivably impact the three monetary objectives by dichoto mizing the subject into Hands-on (active) monetary approach, or Hands-off (free market) fiscal strategy. Once more, it is comprehended that the Hands-off financial arrangement generally implies next to zero government intercession which is at last a disagreement of fiscal approach (Elasrag, 2014). Purchase offering securities the UAE is expressing certainly that it accepts that by acquiring the money and issuing the security to the buyer at a certain premium rate, it can transform around and put the money into the channels it sees fit, whether this is base or flight, and afterward payback the obligation when the venture turns beneficial. The arrangement faces numerous possibilities and blocks on the capability of the UAE further bolstering take full good fortune by giving the trade something to do in for cold hard currency the most productive way that could be available, and if history is any marker Dubais track record of dangerous wagers is not a beyond any doubt thing. In any case, the results will without a doubt be higher of GDP because of dynamic Hands-on money related arrangement (Elasrag, 2014). A Hands-off money related approach would, basically, oblige that no obligation be issued, rather sufficient money to put would need to be actually under control before forward movement could start on any venture, paying little respect to how gainful the speculation is regarded to be. This out of date idea of looking before you jump appears to be falling further antiquated with each security issued In a Hands-off business sector economy, executing fiscal strategy to attain specific results, for instance changing the cash supply by offering more government issued securities to accomplish higher yield of GDP, is viewed as terrible cash administration and in opposition to the thought of Hands-off trading and lending (Driouchi, 2014). To streamline the viewpoint lets envision the UAE is a little family crew. Would it be sound approach for a house that is stretched out beyond their intends to take part in additionally getting with a specific end goal to accomplish a higher expectation for everyday life? Regardless of the fact that the objective is thought to be a build of the families general salary, the danger of selling your future could have unintended consequences that are sweeping and generational. The UAE could never be confounded with a little family, with unlimited future riches originating from a seeming less unending supply of oil. By utilizing the Hands-on hypothesis, Dubai will offer government issued bonds and utilize the money to manufacture streets and landing strips, giving its subjects something to do immediately, successfully keeping unemployment low and GDP high (Driouchi, 2014). 3. Find Out and Explain the Effectiveness How To Use It to Fix Unemployment The answer for unemployment is, clearly, to make new occupations. Normally, a solid financial development rate of 2-3% is sufficient to make the 150,000 new occupations required to keep unemployment from climbing. At the point when unemployment crawls over 6-7% and stays there, it implies the economy isnt solid enough to make sufficient new employments without help. That is the point at which the legislature is required to venture in and give results. See what the legislature has attempted in the past with Unemployment Rate by Year (Raven, 2011). Money related Policy: The result utilized first to address managed high unemployment is fiscal boost from the Federal Reserve. Sweeping financial approach is effective, snappy and typically compelling. Lower investment rates permit families to acquire all the more affordably to purchase what they need, in the same way as autos, homes and buyer hardware. This invigorates enough request to return the economy on track. Low investment rates likewise permit organizations to get for less, providing for them the funding to contract new laborers to take care of climbing demand. Monetary Policy: Nonetheless, when fiscal approach doesnt work, then monetary arrangement is normally requested. This method the administration should either slice charges or build using to invigorate the economy (Raven, 2011). Monetary arrangement is typically slower to begin, since Congress and the President must concur on what ought to be carried out. Nonetheless, it could be more compelling once executed. It additionally gives much- required certainty that the administration will empower the economy and things will improve. Certainty is a significant element in persuading individuals to use now for a superior future. Cutting charges has a comparative, however much more straightforward, impact as lower investment rates. It gives purchasers more cash to use, expanding interest. It additionally cuts costs for organizations, which can utilize the money to contribute within their business and contract more laborers. Government using normally takes the manifestation of occupations projects, where the legislature employs laborers and organizations straightforwardly to fabricate things or give administrations (Raven, 2011). This demonstrations like a tax break, by giving shoppers the money they have to purchase more items. Whats the Most Cost Effective Unemployment Solution? Nonetheless, not all financial approach results are made equivalent. Dollar for dollar, whats the best financing that makes the most occupations? A few examination studies indicate that the most savvy result is giving development occupations to, of all things, mass travel. The following most practical is unemployment profits and the third best occupations supplier is financing instruction. Tax reductions, whether payroll or no matters how you look at it pay assessment, are less powerful (Forstenlechner, Rutledge, 2010). Whats the slightest viable occupations maker? Safeguard using. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s Tax Cuts: As indicated by a U Mass/Amherst study, the most well known financial jolt, in all cases wage tax breaks, is not the savviest. One billion dollars in cuts made 10,779 employments, in light of the fact that just a large portion of the cash ($505 million) specialists accepted was used. The rest was spared or used to pay down obligations. (Source: Umass/Amherst, Robert Pollin and Heidi Garrett-Peltier, Department of Economics and Political Economy Research Institute, The Employment Effects of Military and Domestic Spending Priorities, October 2007) (Forstenlechner, Rutledge, 2010). Its more practical to give organizations payroll tax breaks. A study by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) found that each $1 billion in payroll charge alleviation made 13,000 new employments. The best place to give business charge easing is with little organizations, which are the key driver for 65% of all new employments (Forstenlechner, Rutledge, 2010). (Source: CBO, The Economic Outlook and Fiscal Policy Choices, September 28, 2010) Using Solutions: The U Mass/Amherst specialists found that subsidizing mass travel gives the most value for the money. One billion dollars used makes 19,795 development occupations. An alternate practical result is using on training. One billion used employing instructors makes 17,687 occupations. It has the extra profit of including an extra $1.3 billion into the economy, as all the more exceedingly taught individuals improve employments on their own, and can purchase more things with the higher wages they acquire. The slightest savvy in occupations creation is military using, which just makes 8,555 for the same financing (Sherif, 2013). That is on account of its more capital serious, as advanced barrier depends all the more on automatons, F-16s, and plane carrying warships than infantry. Unemployment Benefits: Beside open works ventures, the second savviest utilization of government stores is giving profits to the unemployed. The CBO study discovered 19,000 occupations are made for each $1 billion in profits. That is on account of the unemployed are well on the way to use each dime they get on the rudiments, in the same way as basic needs, garments and lodging. This drives retailers and producers to contract more individuals to take care of the extra demand. The other preference of unemployment profits is it is quick. The legislature simply composes a check, which promptly goes into the economy. Open works undertakings can take a while to get actualized. For additional, see why Extended Unemployment benefits are the best way to boost the Economy (Elasrag, 2014). Monetary Policy Risks: The downside of monetary strategy is it can add to the financial backing deficiency, making more government obligation. As obligation methodologies 100% of the economys aggregate yield, it can really abate monetary development. That is on account of moguls lose interest for that legislatures obligation, which makes investment rates ascent, expanding the expense of getting. Then again, backers of supply-side matters of trade and profit say that, about whether, the economy will be helped so much that it will make up the lost expense income. All answers for decrease unemployment must make interest to invigorate the economy (Driouchi, 2014). For additional, see Job Creation: Ideas, Statistics and Creation by President. References Forstenlechner, I., Rutledge, E. (2010). Unemployment in the Gulf: time to update the Ã¢â¬Å"social contractÃ¢â¬ .Middle East Policy,17(2), 38-51. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4967.2010.00437.x/abstract;jsessionid=319D805ACF3FAE59970D9F3599158EF3.f04t02?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=userIsAuthenticated=false Sherif, S. (2013). Macroeconomic policy, localization and reducing unemployment: The crucial human resource issues for the UAE.Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness,23(2), 158-174. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17084231show=abstract Elasrag, H. (2014). ÃËÃ §ÃËÃ ´Ãâ¢ÃâÃËÃ §Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ãâ¢Ã ÃËÃ © ÃËÃ §Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃËÃ ¨ÃËÃ ·ÃËÃ §Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃËÃ © Ãâ¢Ã Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬ ° ÃËÃ ¯Ãâ¢Ãâ Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾ Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬ ¦ÃËÃ ¬Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃËÃ ³ ÃËÃ §Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃËÃ ªÃËÃ ¹ÃËÃ §Ãâ¢Ãâ Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬ ÃËÃ §Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾ÃËÃ ®Ãâ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ãâ¢Ã ÃËÃ ¬Ãâ¢Ã (Unemployment and Job Creation in the GCC Countries).Available at SSRN 2411584. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2411584 Driouchi, A. (2014). Unemployment Persistence Risks of Skill Obsolescence in Arab Countries. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/53793/ Raven, J. (2011). Emiratizing the education sector in the UAE: contextualization and challenges.Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues,4(2), 134-141. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1926573show=abstract
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
If you're counting on government student loans to get you through college or graduate school, count on paying them back. The Education Department has become one of the toughest debt collectors around. Over the past decade, the agency has steadily expanded its arsenal for dealing with former students who don't repay. A 1998 change in federal law made it extremely difficult for people to escape student loans through personal bankruptcy. The Education Department also can now seize parts of borrowers' paychecks, tax refunds and Social Security payments without a court order, a power similar to the IRS's. Access to a government database of newly employed workers has enabled the department to make much more effective use of private collection agencies. And it can go after even decades-old student loans, because there's no statute of limitations on them, unlike most consumer debt. As a result, the Education Department collected $5.7 billion in defaulted student loans in the past fiscal year, more than twice as much as in 1998. For current loans that go into default, the department now projects it will ultimately retrieve every dollar of principal, plus almost 20% in fees and overdue interest. The aggressive approach has sparked an outcry from some borrowers, consumer advocates and even some bankruptcy-court judges. They complain that the department runs over some former students who have suffered reversals of fortune. Some who favor a softer stance argue that student loans are ...
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The nature character and spatial distribution of world cities: Increasing globalisation has had major impacts on the world urban system. As a result a group of cities has emerged as key nodes in the organisation and functioning of the world, known as World Cities. World cities, such as London and New York are a product of cultural and economic globalisation and act as nodal points for the multiplicity of linkages and interconnections that sustain the functioning of the world economy. These cities have developed distinct characteristics as a result of their dynamic nature, and are spatially distributed around the world. Nature: The emergence of World cities has been due to the globalisation of economic activity, which involves the development of stronger links between various countries. There has been a great acceleration in globalisation and the growth of world cities Ã¢â¬â due to: Ã¢â¬ ¢Technologic development in transport and communication Ã¢â¬ ¢Deregulation of trade and financial markets Ã¢â¬ ¢The emergence of and role played by Trans National Corporations (TNCÃ¢â¬â¢s) Ã¢â¬ ¢New ways of undergoing business operations and economic activity Ã¢â¬ ¢Emergence of a global market for lifestyle related commodities This process of globalisation and the growth of world cities have had a number of impacts: Ã¢â¬ ¢Economic restructuring Ã¢â¬â A rapid expansion in world trade and relocation of labour intensive manufacturing processes to developing nations (megacities) with cheaper labour. World cities are emerging from the internationalisation of economic activity. TNCs are a key player in this rapid expansion as they have an increase in economic influence not only deciding what to produce but where to produce and distribute it. Ã¢â¬ ¢Spatial restructuring patterns in developed areas Ã¢â¬â the shift from residential and commercial investment in suburbs to higher-cost inner city housing and Ã¢â¬Ëedge citiesÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËtechnoburbsÃ¢â¬â¢ which are distinct urban nodes with larger metropolitan areas. This often targets low income areas which pushes low income people further away from these nodes. Ã¢â¬ ¢Social restructuring patterns in developed areas- Urban societies have become more polarised with greater amounts of poverty and wealth. The middle class is stagnating in terms of wealth although there is a splitting into a lower middle class with low paid service sector jobs and an upper middle class who are multiskilled such as in the information based industries. The industrial work class is declining in living standards. The outcome of this restructuring is an increase in disparity in terms of social advantages and disadvantages. Character: World cities are nodes in the global economy which hold national and international significance due to their economic and cultural influence; World cities possess this economic and cultural authority through various characteristics described below. Economic: -They are command points in the organisation of the global economy -Key locations for a full range of financial services -Markets for a vast range of goods and services Cultural: -Existence of social infrastructure that facilitates contact between people face-to-face -A centre for a range of cultural facilities -Provides the opportunity to live a distinctive cultural lifestyle Spatial Distribution: World cities are spatially dispersed, mainly across the developed world, yet globally integrated through systems of exchange and production. Within the global network of world cities exist several sub systems: Ã¢â¬ ¢Western European subsystem Ã¢â¬â centred on London and Paris. This contains the highest concentration of world cities as it is the it is the initial site of the industrial revolution leading to the interconnection of these cities to each other. Ã¢â¬ ¢North American subsystem- centred on New York, Los Angeles and Chicago. This is the second largest concentration of world cities as its industrial revolution led to it being a leading manufacturing region of the world and then the leading service region of the world. Ã¢â¬ ¢Asian subsystem- centred on Tokyo, Singapore and more recently Shanghai. The Asian world cities most importantly connect regional manufacturing areas such as India and China through Mumbai and Shanghai respectively into the world economy. Other centres such as Tokyo, Seoul and Hong Kong are also world cities due to their past industrialisation following World War II. Ã¢â¬ ¢Southern Hemisphere- linked by Sydney, Johannesburg and Sao Paulo. The southern hemisphere is largely disconnected as much of South America and Africa is still in a developing state but key cities such as Sydney and Sao Paulo connect the respective regions of Australia and Brazil into the global economy. Due to continued globalisation, a number of projected spatial trends also exist: Ã¢â¬ ¢An increase in African cities into a global network may be seen in the future. Africa is a resource rich area, especially in raw minerals and it also has a large population available. These areas are currently marginalised from the global system as there is a lack of infrastructure which allows for the expansion of these economies on a global scale. Despite this marginalisation they do still have connectivity to Europe exporting goods such as oil. Ã¢â¬ ¢A shift of power to Asian cities- The Asian region has been industrialising since the end of World War II and cities such as Tokyo have major connectivity and influence as world cities. The economic growth seen areas such as China and India may lead to a high concentration of world cities in this region and a shift in global cultural and economic power. Ã¢â¬ ¢An increase in South American cities into the global network. Through countries such as Brazil, which has maintained GDP growth rates of around 10%, as well as this other countries have regional importance which can be linked to the global network through cities such as Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires. Ã¢â¬ ¢An increase in Middle East cities into the global network. Countries such as the United Arab Emirates have sustained high economic growth rates due to oil exportation which has then been invested into infrastructure such as for tourism. An example of this is in Dubai with major investment in hotels. This new system of world cities based on the presences of information-based activities is an essential part of the global hierarchy.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Answers to Autism essays Autism comes from the Greek word autos, meaning self, implying a narrowing of relationships to people and the outside world. This disorder occurs in one in every five hundred births and at a ratio of five boys to every girl (Quick Facts about Autism). Autism is the third most common developmental disability following mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Many individuals have herd of autism; however, very few know the specifics of this neurobiological disorder and how it not only affects the person who has the disorder, but also the people who surround them. Autism is a neurobiological disorder of devilment that causes discrepancies or differences in the way information is processed (Understanding the nature of autism). The process of obtaining information affects an individual with autisms ability to do many things. For example, someone with this particular disorder may have more trouble understanding and using language to interact and communicate with people. He or she may also experience difficulty understanding and relating to people, events, and objects in the environment. Autism also affects ones ability to respond to sensory stimuli. Like other developmental disabilities, autism effects can range in the differentiations of severity. A number of factors that make the central nervous system develop abnormally can result in this disorder. There are several events that may take place during fetal development, during birth, or after birth that may trigger some developmental differences. For example, viral infections such as encephalitis or congenital rubella and metabolic imbalances such as phenylketunuria can cause affects of autism (Understanding the Nature of Autism). Also exposure to alcohol and drugs such as in cocaine addicted babies and oxygen deprivation may also result in damage that triggers developmental differences. Even though the condition that results in autism occurs at birth, parents or individu...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Ghandi Essays - Gandhism, British Empire In World War II Ghandi Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbandar, India, on October 2, 1869. Although his father was a chief minister for the maharaja of Porbandar, the family came from the traditional caste of grocers (the name Gandhi means grocer). His mother's religion was Jainism, a Hindu religion which ideas of nonviolence and vegetarianism are very important. Gandhi said that he was most influenced by his mother, whose life was an endless chain of fasts and vows. When, in the company of boyhood friends, he secretly smoked, ate meat, told lies, or wore Western clothing, he had an intense feeling of guilt. These feelings forced him to make resolutions about his moral behaviour that were to stay with him for the rest of his life. Ghandi married at the age of 13. When he was 18, he went to London to study law. He was admitted to the bar in 1891 and for a while he was attorney in Bombay. From 1893 to 1914 he worked for an Indian firm in South Africa. During these years Gandhi's humiliating experiences of open, official racial discrimination and aphartheid propelled him into agitation on behalf of the Indian community of South Africa. He started protest campaigns and organized provocating demonstrations, but never used violence. His philosophy was to never fight back against the atrocities, but still never retreat. This, he said, would decrease the hate against him and his fellow believers, and increase the respect felt towards him. Gandhi's one aim was that everybody - hindues, muslims, sikhs, jews, christians, black and white - could live together in peace and harmony. Under the banner We are citizens of the empire he gathered Indians from all over South Africa to a march for freedom. He gradually developed his techniques and tenets of nonviolent resistance, and when he returned to India in January 1915, he was celebrated as a national hero. He was soon asked to participate in and organize India's fight for freedom, as he fought aphatheid in South Africa. Then he started his journey to discover the real India, the life in the 700.000 small villages and the countryside with all the hardworking men and women. These were the ones he was going to represent in his fight for justice. As time passed, more and more people got to know about Gandhi and his controversial views, and Gandhi's popularity grew incredibly fast, something the English Vice-king and government didn't approve of at all. Armed only with honesty and a bamboo stick, Gandhi got through demands like a rebait on rent pay to the English land-owners, freedom for the Indians to grow crops of their own choice and the establishment of a part- Indian commission to hear grievances from the Indians. The Englishmen allowed these demands without questions, just to see the back of him. But Gandhi had greater aims. They sent Gandhi to jail several times, but they always had to release him, because he never used or indirectly caused violence or crime. He convinced almost everyone that nonviolence increases respect and decreases hate, but terror-actions and violence justifies the atrocities. Now, the Englishmen were getting afraid of this little, big man. And fright made them dangerous. In the town of Amritsar in 1919, English soliders, armed with guns, attacked and shot to kill hundreds of nationalist demonstrators, demonstrators who's goal was, ironically enough, nonviolence. 1516 demonstrators were killed or wounded. The general said that he wanted to give the Indians a lesson that would have an impact throughout all of India. The English people and government reputiated this terrible action and the attitude that prompted it. The massacre of Amritsar turned Gandhi to direct political protest, and made it possible for him to propose that maybe it was time for the Englishmen to go home for good. Within a year he was the dominant figure in the Indian National Congress, where Gandhi challenged the Brits: 100.000 Englishmen cannot control 350 million Indians if these Indians won't cooperate. That was what Gandhi wanted to achieve when he launched on a policy of noncooperation with the British. Nonviolence and noncooperation would make India independent of the British Empire, and the Indians would see the Englishmen off as friends. The first action of this noncooperation policy was to make the indians realize that to buy
Monday, November 4, 2019
Various Religious Restrictions in Many Forms of Art - Assignment Example It does not add anything foreign to its shape because the religion believes that the work of man is never equal to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s art. To add to this, focus on the Quran brought about illustration and calligraphy. The Quran also makes explicit and various prohibitions on figurative imagery like bowing to gods as well as prohibit iconography. Unlike in Islamic art, Christian art is extraordinary because it does not illustrate the particular style of art, region, or period, but rather a specific choice of purpose, which entails extensive styles and forms. Getlein (378) also explains that Christian art touches on subjects like theology, politics, history, and philosophy. Having started with the minority groups, who had singled out their beliefs, it started having a universal occurrence in both private and public buildings to what was referred to as Christendom. Christian art was seen in great churches, abbeys, royal palaces, and cathedrals. It was also seen parishes, small churches, and private residential. The imagery of Christian was also evident in mosaic and wall-paintings in the walls of churches. What impacted the nature and creation of Christian was the decision of Paul to spread the gospel and when Constantine embraced Christianity. Christian art can also be traced towards the beginning and end of both second and t hird century. In the Old Testament, there are prohibitions of images, which are graven, families would be buried in tombs that were carved with marble and outside the walls of Rome, and the Romans would dig catacombs to bury their family members (Getlein 15). In chapter 21 of The Living Art, different works of arts have been exhibited from writers and artists who found it thrilling and overwhelming because they recognized art as modern. Getlein (506) argues that modernity is said to have developed a new type of society in the wake of revolution from diverse art movements like an American, Industrial, andÃ the French revolution.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Nursing 'Combating Compassion Fatigue ' - Essay Example There are five concepts of compassion fatigue that include emotional, somatic, cognitive, behavioral and spiritual concepts. All these concepts have certain warning signs to show that one is in the brink of experiencing compassion fatigue. With respect to the cognitive concept, warning signs include decrease in self-esteem, poor judgment, short attention span, disordered thinking, forgetfulness and disinterest in introspection. Generally, this means that the mental ability of a caregiver to perform their duties decreases. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s colleagues will notice a reduced work rate and a form of laziness or disinterest in normal activities and a lot of negativity around the working environment. With respect to emotional concept, the warning signs could include distancing oneself from others, expressing anger to work situations, becoming apathetic, having a desire to leave nursing, going into depression and experiencing irritability. Here, a nurse feels that the normal responsibilities hav e become a burden and does not need such issues. In terms of the behavioral concept, the warning signs could include unresponsiveness, indifference, callousness, isolation and avoidance of emotionally charged situations. A nurse experiences a change in behavior in response to normal events or situations at the work place and acts like he or she is not in the right work environment even if they have worked there for years (Bush, 2009). With respect to the somatic concept, an individual will experience warning signs such as headaches, exhaustion, becoming accident-prone, becoming susceptible to infection and having difficulty in sleeping. Individuals feel physically exhausted and drained to the extent that they feel pain such as headaches, sweating, rapid heartbeat and dizziness among others. They may not respond normally to their normal duties because of the above symptoms. In respect to spiritual concepts, an individual will feel laziness to