Saturday, August 24, 2019
Nostalgia and the frontier - Assignment Example Since it introduced new changes into he society, it was fiercely opposed by the native populations. Meaning, it sparked a violent resistance from the natives who were threatened by the coming of these colonialists into their land. Such a version can appeal most to the scout who perceive America to be built from violent resistances. Initially, Americans were democratic people who believed in equality, peace and social order. This is the view of Turner in his highly regarded Frontier thesis in which he says that the Native American populations were peace-loving. At the same time, they were egalitarians who did not entertain selfishness, but believed in the sharing of resources amongst themselves. This was seen in the manner in which they managed land resources. In fact, it is because of this that the native Indian Americans believed in the free land system. After all, there was a vast land with numerous resources to exploit making it unnecessary for these natives to scramble for them. However, when the land was invaded by the colonialists, all these changed as a new social order was established. After the signing of numerous with the Europeans, the natives would soon find out that life would never be the same. As demonstrated by Buffalo Bill, violence had to erupt because the invasion opened a new frontier to the Indian Americans whose life had been confined within their geographical area. So, unlike before, they would be exposed to the western community and the rest of the world thus influencing them a great deal. Apart from introducing new economic systems, the frontier led to the establishment of the states. These were totally new developments that had to be defended. All in all, the ideas expressed by the boy scouts, Buffalo Bill Wild West shows and Westerns demonstrate that the frontier was indeed a new development that marked a big turning point in the lives of the Indian Americans. If it were not for it, these natives
Friday, August 23, 2019
Writing Skills - Essay Example The article shows another problem - GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s population is still dwindling because old people are its majority. This has affected the production output of the country. The future seems bleak and thus, an urgent action is needed to salvage this predicament. Germany needs to employ a policy that will enhance immigration. In addition, it needs to implement integration measures like those found in other nations such as the U.S.A. As a fact, changes are inevitable and they occur in all cultures. The acceptance of friendly immigration rules by Germany will make it handle the problem of age difference among its population. The article talks about Brazilian immigrants who have been sending back to their native country. It is highlighted that they have been offered air tickets home and not expected to come back to Japan. Japan faces a high immigration rate, especially from Brazil. As a way of sustaining its economy, it had allowed the immigrants to come to the country and offered them jobs. However, the pressure has become too much and unemployment rates have risen. As a way of curbing this, it has opted to send the Brazil immigrants back to their country (Masters, 2009). Japan needs to come up with well defined migration laws in order to curb the high immigration rate. The country requires not sending the Brazilians back to their native country as they help in sustaining its economy. Instead, Japan has to look for other opportunities that will help in curbing the rising unemployment rates. It should encourage its population to be self-employed as well as educate its younger generation. In this way, the Brazilians who are already in the country would not feel
Thought Pieces - Assignment Example Drones have been in used for quite sometimes. Although at the time, they were used solely by the military to spy on rivals in the war field. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles has expanded since then. This is highly attributed to the advancement of technology. Nagelhout, (2013), says that many people are coming up with new and innovative ideas. With each passing day, better machines are being unveiled. It is startling to imagine how much the drones could do. It may even be scary to believe that such innovations could be used to harm people, or to spy on them. Drones carry cameras and can record things taking place. They can even go unnoticed, which makes it scarier. The 21st century is full of innovations, and there is so much to expect. An example of a company that is thinking about using drones is Amazon, which is in the process of experimenting with delivery of packages. Nardo, (2014), says that the drones will be able to deliver within a radius of ten miles, and they are expected to do so in about thirty minutes. This will be a significant boost to the business. What is being debated is that if the drones are allowed to do the delivery, and then what will people do? It means that the workload of the workers will be reduced, and many may even be laid off. Although it is a good idea that saves time and is very attractive to the customers, many considerations have to be made. With the rate in which new technology is being manifested, Nardo, (2014) adds that the future holds so much more. Other than all those uses named above, in the future I know that drones will be able to carry out more than just the simple tasks of delivering small packages. I see a future where unmanned aerial vehicles will be bigger in size and will be able to carry more weight. Drones will have new designs that are both appealing to look at and will have more power, higher speed and more accuracy. With a touch of a button, the machines will be smart enough to do carry out the
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Knowing Your Audience Paper Essay Most people would never want to imagine themselves or a family member being trapped under ground for even one day but the victims of those who were trapped under the Chilean copper mine had to consider not one day but even two months. According to The New York Times Company(2014), Ã¢â¬Å"On Aug. 5, 2010, a gold and copper mine near the northern city of CopiapÃ ³, Chile caved in, trapping 33 miners in a chamber about 2,300 feet below the surfaceÃ¢â¬ . At this time no one knew the well being or the nature of the situation that happened at the copper mine. During this time communication between employers, familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ membersÃ¢â¬â¢ involved, trapped miners and those set in place to find a solution to this problem was very vital. Some things to keep in mind when considering roles and audiences is to determine what information to give and how it should be expressed or conveyed to the audience. For example, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re giving direct and urgent information, you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t send this type of information over an email, it would be more appropriate to say it face to face. It is important to consider how much does the audience know about the topic or subject you are sharing at that time. In the situation with the trapped miners the potential needs that should be considered and expressed to the families of the trapped miners would be first addressing what happened. This information should be given directly, face to face, to all family members involved. It is important to give the family as much detail about the incident as possible but not so much that it makes them alarmed and upset. Also another thing to add is the condition or well being of the trapped miners. If the information isnÃ¢â¬â¢t available its best to let them know although there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t much information at this time, but as soon as the information is available, they will be first to know. Also the last need that the family members affected by this incident would need is to understand and know what the employers and team of experts are doing to find a solution to the problem and how often can they know the extent and whereabouts of the situation. At this point after meeting the potential needs of the families involved, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also important to understand and know the potential needs of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees. Although they may not be the family members or those who are actually trapped at that moment, they also play a vital role. Some potential needs for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees would be to communicate effectively. Although the situation itself must have been very tragic if there was effective communication, there would be no way forÃ the employees at that time to help save those trapped. Also another need that needs to be met would be extra training and understanding of what took place, where it went wrong, and how to fix the problem. Without the employees having a plan or strategy of how they could effectively resolve or help the situation it could cause retaliation or resentment. After the message about the incident, and the actions or plan that is put in place has been verified and delivered to all important parties and involved itÃ¢â¬â¢s important that all those involved are able to convey what they heard and understood before and after the message is given. To make sure the message was received as properly and effectively you have to consider each audience which would be the trapped miners, employees and families. The message given to each party cannot be given the same. Also the channel has to be considered, again in this situation you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t send this information through an email or memo, this information that has to be conveyed face to face. It is also good to give information based on the listenerÃ¢â¬â¢s level of understanding and to talk with the parties that involve a way opening up the way for cooperation and in this situation it would be much needed. An effective communication as the mining company to the family members of the trapped miners would be face to face. During this time the mining company would say with sincerity and clarity that Ã¢â¬Å" At this time we are deeply sorry to announce that we have understood and learned that on Aug. 5, 2010, a gold and copper mine near the northern city of CopiapÃ ³, caved in, trapping 33 miners in a chamber about 2,300 feet below the ground. At this time we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t certain what exactly caused the cave in and we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t certain the condition of the miners at this time. We will be working around the clock to get more information about the well being of the trapped miners. Also at this moment there will be specialist and experts going to the scene to analyze and inspect the situation at hand. After further observation of the experts then will we know what plan will be put in place to rescue our fellow employees. As soon as we are made aware of the plan we will let you know. We hope that we can all work together effectively which much understanding and cooperation from us and you so that we can bring your family members back to you.Ã¢â¬ Also an effective communication between the mining company and the employees would be a face to face channel. At that time the company would express, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m sad to announce to you that our fellowÃ employees have been caved in a chamber about 2,300 feet below the ground in the northern city of CopiapÃ ³. There are 33 at this time trapped and waiting to be rescued. We arenÃ¢â¬â¢t sure of the condition of the each employee but we all hope that we can all come together to help the best way we can to make sure that those who are trapped are in good condition. Although we never plan for anything like this to take place but unfortunately we have to use the way we were trained to assess the situation. At this time along with yourself the family members of the trapped miners are already being informed. Please letÃ¢â¬â¢s not alarm the families with information that has not been given or confirmed. Our main mission is to stay calm, offer up many prayers and work together in unity. During this time we will be working around the clock to help as much as we can and the company will provide meals, clean working clothes and a place to sleep. However you think you can help or what will better the situation please send your requests or opinions to us directly. Thank you so much for your cooperati on in help.Ã¢â¬
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Gaining And Maintaining Airworthiness Engineering Essay Aircraft design process involved in varied disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures, flight mechanics etc. Therefore, for an aircraft to become operational it is essential to demonstrate that the construction and design of the aircraft can comply with the requirements applicable and such verification and validation evidence required to be delegated to the relevant authorities. This report introduces Airworthiness and provides the reader the framework involved in gaining airworthiness and how to maintain it subsequently. Introduction Consideration of airworthiness policies has its origins since the early days of military flying. But aircraft design data has been recorded prior to 1910 for balloons and the Royal Aircraft Factory has produced a design requirement document in 1916. The Aerial Navigation Act that is sanction by the Home Office in 1911 to ban flying in populated areas is an early example of safety regulation. Airworthiness Department has been established decade later by the Royal Aircraft Factory (as part of the Air Ministry), which is the beginning of procedures for company design approvals and approved data. Aircraft airworthiness means compliance with applicable aviation authorities regulations that defines the minimum safety level of the aircraft, of the passengers transported and the over flown territories. When designed and built according to applicable requirements, When operated within its intended environment and within its quantified and declared limitations, And maintained in accordance with procedures acceptable to the responsible Authority. The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Regulation 216/2008, Article 5, 2(c) defines the airworthiness as; Each aircraft shall be issued with an individual certificate of airworthiness when it is shown that it conforms to the type design approved in its type-certificate and that relevant documentation, inspections and tests demonstrate the aircraft is in condition for safe operation The Airworthiness is a collective responsibility of operators, authorities, manufactures and maintenance organisations. An airworthy aircraft is one where the likelihood of any incident or accident as a result of malfunction, performance or handling of the aircraft is kept to acceptable levels. The only real measure of airworthiness in use is given by tracking and analyzing incidents and accidents. The remaining sections will discuss the essence of Gaining and Maintaining Airworthiness. Figure 01: Airworthiness Collective Responsibilities Implementation of Airworthiness Authority (EASA) confidence that the design of a product complies with the applicable requirements based on Certification of the organisation (IR 21 DOA) Certification of the design of products (CS 25 TC) DO Approval According to European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), Design Organisation Approval (DOA) requirements Implementing Rule (IR) part 21 (published as annex to European Commission Regulation (EC) No 1702/2003) includes procedural requirements applicable either to the industry (Section A) or to the Competent Authorities (Section B) but Part 21 does not include provisions to delegate EASA authority and / or signature to individuals. Certification of aircraft and related products, parts and appliances, and of design and production organisations Organisations must demonstrate following key elements in order to obtain DO Approval. Design Assurance System Handbook Right People Terms of Approval Obligations of the holder Figure 02 DOA Key Elements Design Organisation Approval (DOA) Organisation Structure Following diagram illustrates a simplified organisation structure demonstrating the essential elements in an aircraft design and manufacturing organisation. Figure 03: Design Organisation Structure Chief Executive Officer (CEO): Responsible for appropriate functioning of the work place by ensuring availability of required resources. Designated Certification Specialist (DCS): Airworthiness specialist nominated for a given discipline (ATA or Sub-ATA level or for Approved Manuals) to carry out the certification tasks, in particular to manage the compliance demonstration activities for their domain. Part of the airworthiness function and act under the control of Product Integrity. Certification Manager (CM) Certification panel leaders for their area of competence, Participate in the development of new certification strategies The CM is the interface with Aviation Authorities at panel level for primary TC, foreign certification / validation activities and for allocated major changes. Chief Airworthiness Engineer (CAE) Responsible for leading and coordinating the certification and airworthiness activities for the programme. Supported by a team usually called the CAE team composed of: A Type Certification Manger (TCM) An Individual Aircraft Certification Manager (IACM) A Continued Airworthiness Manager (CAM) Type Certification Type certification is the process demonstrating that the design of an aircraft complies with the applicable aviation requirements. Certification process could be a new type certificate new aircraft (ex. Airbus A380), Amended Type certification model or derivative (ex: Airbus A350 1000) and significant major changes to the type design (ex. A330-200 Passenger to Freighter) To grant and EASA Type Certificate, aircraft manufacture shall obtain first a DOA (Design Organisation Approval) covering the relevant product (aircraft type) and also shall demonstrate its capability to design, certify and ensure the continued airworthiness of its products in accordance with the certification specification (CS-25) and Environmental protection (CS-34, CS-36) requirements. To manufacture and release to service series aircraft, manufacture must then obtain a POA (Production Organisation Approval) and establish relationship between DOA POA. Flight Test Flight testing process could be potentially very risky and extremely expensive due to unforeseen problem s result in loss of life (both crew and people on the ground) and damage to the aircraft. Due to this reasons modern flight testing is one of the most safety conscious operations. Typically there are two types of flight test programs, military and commercial. There is a significant difference between military and commercial flight testing where commercial test programs are carried out to certify the aircraft meets all required safety and performance requirements where as military programs involved in aircraft manufactures designing and building aircraft to government contracts to meet specific mission capabilities. Initiation of flight test preparations for both commercial and military aircraft commence well before the aircraft is ready to fly, although due to the fact that the government is funding the military projects, involvement of military flight testing is commence much ear ly-on in the design and testing process. Historical Data Analysis According to historical evidence, operational and airframe related risk of a serious accident causes is approximately one per million flight hours but failure problems occurred by aircraft systems problems is about 10 percent of this total amount. Therefore, it is reasonable to argue that systems faults should not allowed serious accidents and it is therefore possible for a new design to change the probability of such a serious accident not to be greater than one per ten million flight hours (1 x 10-7). But it is not possible to identify whether the target can be met until all the aircraft systems has been numerically collectively analysed. Due to this reason its assumed that there are about 100 potential failure conditions present arbitrarily which could prevent safe flight and landing of the aircraft. By sharing out equally the target allowable risk (x 10-7) equally among these conditions risk allocation result in not greater than 1 x 10-9 to each. Therefore the upper risk limit for failure conditions would be 1 x 10-9 for each hour of flight which approximates probability value for the term Extremely Improbable. Analytic techniques Various analytical techniques have been developed in line with the above topic to assist Airworthiness Authority and the applicant to carry out a safety analysis, which could benefit systematic qualitative analysis. This technique also important for analyst to perform quantitative assessment when required. The Advisory Material Joint (AMJ) identifies both qualitative and quantitative analytical approaches which could used to support JAA personal or assist applicant to determine the compliance with the requirement. And it also provides guidance for determining if or when a particular analysis to be conducted. The intended requirement of the analytical tools is supplement but not to replace operational and engineering judgement. Legal Issues To have a basic understanding of the legal requirement is vital for aviation professionals such as pilots, mechanics, air traffic controllers and executives. National and international laws or regulations regulate all aspects of civil air transportation. To ensure the effectiveness of the legal framework and enforceability of safety aspects, the following basic groups of regulations have been developed. Airworthiness Regulations to define: Applicable procedures, and Minimum safety, technical and performance requirements to be realised and maintain in the aircraft design. Ex: EASA Part 21 (aircraft certification procedures), Part M and Part 145 (aircraft maintenance) CS-25 (design code for large aircraft) Operational regulations: to define the basic rules air traffic has to follow and the minimum requirements for certain kinds of operations, for the aircraft and the person or the organisation. Ex: EU-OPS1 Commercial Air Transportation After an accident there is two main investigations (technical legal proceedings) will be conducted. Legal proceedings consist with; Civil proceedings which involved in civil claims for damages by victims and/or their relatives, Commercial proceedings which involved in claims for damages by customer and/or its insurer (Aircraft repair / loss, Reduction in aircraft residual value, Loss of revenue) and finally Criminal prosecution, in case of death / serious injury, in certain jurisdictions (ex: France, Germany). Continued Airworthiness According to ICAO Doc No 9760-2001 continued Airworthiness defined as The processes that ensure, at any time in its life, an aircraft complies with the technical conditions fixed to the issue of the Certificate of Airworthiness and is in a condition for safe operation. And recommends Contracting states are required to have a system that ensures aircraft are in a condition for safe operation. F. Florio (2006) stated that safety is the most important thing which has to be ensuring every time in every flight operations and all the airplanes must be in an air worthy state which is suitable for fly. In other words all the aircrafts must achieve and perform all the procedures in the Airworthiness Directive manuals. Furthermore, Florio (2006) also mentioned that continued airworthiness can be rely on two factors Organisation operators Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance can be explained as alterations, inspections, replacements of parts of the aircraft. This can be done by taking a record entry for each event such as replacement of LRUs (Line replacement units). According to Florio (2006), Maintenance refers to as preventive maintenance, alterations and repairs and introduction of airworthiness directive and also he stated that airworthiness is rely on the maintenance programmes , which also establish the replacement of time change items , the overhaul engines, propellers and various parts of appliances. Florio mentioned that as the part of the product type certifications of aircraft airworthiness authorities requires instructions for continued airworthiness thus these instructions can be identified as the fundamental tools of the maintenance because they are the basic maintenance programmes. These maintenance programmes must cater the requirements of operational and maintenance standards. According to EASA Maintenance programme; Every aircraft shall be maintained in accordance with the maintenance programmes approved by the competent authority, which shall be periodically reviewed and amended accordingly. The maintenance programme and any subsequent amendments shall be approved by the competent authority The maintenance programmes must establish compliance with; Instructions for continuing airworthiness issued by the type certificate and the supplementary type certificate holder Instructions issued by the complement authority Instructions issued by the owner or the operator and approved by the competent authority. Repairs Repair process involves different organisations where, when the products are not with aircraft manufacture, continuing airworthiness is governed by the state of registry or the responsibilities are spread out in organisations. Part 21A subpart M states the repair procedural requirements for certification. Under Part 21 subpart M: Elimination of damage (21A.431 b) Unrepaired damages (21A.445 a) Out of Part 21 subpart M Replacement without design activity (21A.431c) Repairs design from an approved manual (GM 21A.431 a) Following diagrams illustrates the Airbus repairing process. Figure 04: Airbus Repairing Process The Structure Repair Manual (SRM) describes general repair practices, materials and typical repairs, allowed damages, which are considered applicable to standard repairs. Its approved by aircraft manufacture under DOR privilege. Modifications Changes made to a particular aircraft after the issue of the airworthiness certificate is a modification. This could include changes to the structures, systems, powerplants, propellers etc Furthermore, substitution of one type for another also considered as a modification. Any modification requires approval from the Civil Aviation Authority directly or via an approved organisation. During a design modification, details of the change must be given to the authority at early stage where then the modification is classified as minor or major medication according to the nature of the investigation. If the outcome of an investigation requires amendments to the Certificate of Airworthiness or Flight Manual, authority may require following major modification procedures. Incidents and Accidents Flight safety experts believe that series of events leads to incidents and accidents. Accidents During the operation of an aircraft, result in occurrence associated with a person being fatally or seriously injured from the time any person boards to the aircraft with intention of flight until the time all persons disembarked. Incidents Other than accidents incidents also occurrences which relate to the operation of the aircraft or could affect the safety of its operation. Aging Aircraft Civil Aviation authority has defined Aging aircrafts as An operational aircraft approaching the end of its design life assumptions (Alder P. 2005). Aging aircraft can also be called as an older aircraft as well. Since the aircraft are manufacture to provide long lasting services for so many years, all the aircraft must be in an airworthy state and have to be safe to fly. Thus maintenance programmes must be carried out to maintain the aircraft and also aircraft must be operated according to the manufacturers recommendation. Florio F. (2006) stated that, older aircraft require additional care and the maintenance programmes must be carried out in a more specific way than the recently manufactured aircraft. And also he stated that due to the fatigue, accidental damage and also due to the environmental deterioration more inspection in the components of the structure must require in maintenance programmes. So to maintain airworthiness in older aircrafts manufacturers of the flight has to provide operators with the specific programs. In older aircrafts normally each of the aeroplane components have to undergo some of the repairs, overhauls, inspection maintenance, preventive maintenance and some replacements of components of the aircraft. Maintenance records have to be update regularly by the operator. Florio F. (2006) states that between operator of the aircraft, manufacturer and also the authority there should be an open communication system. Furthermore he states that once a problem occur the operator or the owner of the aircraft must inform it to the manufacturer and then manufacturer has to prepare the recommendations and has to update the appropriate programmes of continued air worthiness. After examination of those maintenance programmes the authorities will approve those. Role of the Regulator Airworthiness programmes consist of three main roles. Regulator Implementer Investigator Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) are examples for the regulation authorities. These authorities generate and distribute the regulations for aircraft operations for aviation industry. Civil Aviation Authority is the UKs independent specialist regulator. Their main responsibility is to provide world leading air safety environment in the aviation industry. Aircraft licensing, maintenance of specific airworthiness management systems and economic regulations, consumer protection, policies for airspace and setting up national safety standards can be taken as key role of CAA. Regulators involved in few or many roles as follows: Setting up the civil aviation standards and ensure they are achieved. Regulates and encourages airlines, airports and national air traffic services economic activities etc Manages the principal travel protection scheme. Ensure the airspace is a common place for all users by bringing civil and military interests together. Advise the government on aviation issues. Represents consumer interests Conduct scientific and economic research. Provide specialist services by producing statistical data. Conclusion Recommendation Aircraft airworthiness means compliance with applicable aviation authorities regulations that defines the minimum safety level of the aircraft, of the passengers transported and the over flown territories and when designed and built according to applicable requirements, when operated within its intended environment and within its quantified and declared limitations and maintained in accordance with procedures acceptable to the responsible Authority. Therefore, The Airworthiness is a collective responsibility of operators, authorities, manufactures and maintenance organisations.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Water Filtration And Purification And Its Effects Environmental Sciences Essay Filtering and Purifying water, before you drink it, has now become a crucial part of living in a rapidly growing, economically expanding world. In todays society water is reused over and over again. Not only to recycle but to produce enough to sustain people in their everyday lives. The process of filtration makes our water clean by removing visible and non-visible particles. The process of purification makes the water safe and clean to drink. Taking these processes seriously can keep you and the people around you safe and free of harmful substances found in water. A ten step quality process of filtering spring water begins by: Selecting a source and monitoring the water you chose (Arrowhead 7). Some drinking water such as Arrowhead source is a natural spring source (Arrowhead 7). The selection of springs is based on the natural composition, lack of bacteria, availability, and taste (Arrowhead 7). Especially trained geologists and hydrologists monitor the springs on a regular schedule at the place of the source. (Arrowhead 7). Sourcing the water receiving and monitoring the source (Arrowhead 7). Receiving the source water can be as much of a challenge and discovering the source. By following simple steps the water we buy and drink gets to the site in order to begin the filtration process. Spring water is transported by food-grade pipelines, or often by clean stainless steel tanker trucks. Which eventually go directly to the water filter plants (Arrowhead 7). Filters called One-micron filters remove sand and/or other particles that are partially visible or present in the water(Arrowhead 7). The Storage of water (Arrowhead 7) This temporary state of storing the water is done in food-grade storage tanks (Arrowhead8). The water in the tanks is tested (Arrowhead 8). Micro-Filtering the spring water (Arrowhead 8). Two-stage, micro-filters, filter the raw spring water collected from the source (Arrowhead 8). These filters are created to filter out particles and tiny as 0.2 micron in diameter (Arrowhead 8). The Ultraviolent light and Ozone disinfection stage (Arrowhead 8). The Ultraviolent process removes non-visible bacteria (Arrowhead 8). The Micro-filtration is like a second step that adds to the removal of bacteria (Arrowhead 8). Another filtration system called the HydRO-7 process is used by Aquafina Inc. Unlike companies that use spring water Aquafina reuses public water. Here are the 7 simple steps enabling a public water source to be safe and clean to drink. Step One: Removes particles with Pre-filtration. Step Two: Seizes even smaller particles. Step Three: Removes organic matter by UV. Step Four: Removes solid minerals by using reverse osmosis. Step Five: Sets apart trace elements by using an Activated Carbon Filter. Step Six: Makes the water very clear by using a Polishing Filter. Step Seven: the final purification stage is done in an Ozonized Water Tank and the Ozone Generator. (I received all of the information in the past paragraph from (http://www.aquafina.com/) Other water products similar to Arrowhead and Aquafina all have to follow the required statement under California law. These laws determine what waters are safe and what departments are allowed to develop and sell bottled water. Water in California is produced and used from sources such as; lakes, rivers, streams, reservoirs, ponds, wells, and springs. Often water that has traveled through the earth picks up natural elements, and substances that are found due to human and animals natural activities such as pollution (Arrowhead 23). Benefits following the filtration and purification process done by companies such as Suburban Water Systems include; the removal of dangerous elements such as Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Chromium, Fluoride, Lead, Mercury, Nitrates, and Radium. These elements are removed by an advance process of reverse osmosis. Other assets include; improvement in taste, bathing water, laundry, dishwashing, cleansing water, and maintenance as well (www.subwater.com). Filtering and purifying your water is a basic survival skill too. One basic rule of wilderness survival is; filter + purify = safe to drink. So if you are ever caught in a situation of survival remember this rule. (Bryan 1) The Earth has a system that has been around since the beginning of time, we know it as the Water Cycle. All of the earths features (including us) depend on the Water Cycle. It explains why the earth never runs out of water and only changes state or form (Usborne 51). But society today has damaged this system by polluting the land, sea, and air. Causing much of the pure water to be used and polluted. We use so many chemicals and man-made systems to make the water safe to drink. It makes you wonder whether or not this water is truly safe to be used (Usborne 51). Different types of water found in the U.S. include; Bottled water which refers to any type of water being contained in a sealed container primarily for domestic use by humans. Vended Water, meaning that it has not undergone the same advanced treatment as bottled water and is dispensed through a public water facility. Both are the two forms of clean water available in California. Each is protected under the CDPH or California Department of Public Health (www.cdph.ca.gov). When survival skills are needed finding water can be a challenge. Dehydration is a common result of lack of healthy water, leading most of the time to serious medical conditions. Make sure to note that if you are ever caught in a challenging situation in search of water that you check your source and make sure it is safe and clean to drink. Contaminated water is sometimes easily noticed if you look for obvious signs; turbidity (cloudiness of water), pesticides, fertilizers (from agricultural land nearby), and a more noticed pest called Giardia Lambia. When looking for water along a trail or when camping use your map. Most maps show any sources of water these maps are called Topo maps (Wilderness-suvival-skills.com). Water is a basic part of living. Making sure your water is clean is the first step in staying healthy. Since majority of our water is recycled we should make sure we know what types are best. Purifying water is just as necessary as filtering it, if not even more important. Purifying water is done in order to clean the water of non-visible elements. In doing this you make the water clear and able to be digested safely into our bodies. Purifying is done in water plants as mentioned before. But if you find yourself in a situation in need of water you must filter and purify it yourself. When or if this problem ever arises you must filter your water using available items and then boil the water. This makes the water somewhat clean and safe to drink. Thanks to advancements in our ways of cleaning our water, we now have clean safe water for our use at the turn of a nob. When using water we should make sure we use it wisely and are cautious to the harmful pollution in water outside. So when outdoors drink out of a water bottle and dont drink out of the streamÃ¢â¬ ¦ But if found without a clean water at hand remember filter + purify=safe to drink!
Monday, August 19, 2019
Ã For the Greeks, Homer's Odyssey was much more than just an entertaining tale of gods, monsters, and men, it served as cultural paradigm from which every important role and relationship could be defined.Ã This book, much more so than its counter part The Iliad, gives an eclectic view of the Achean's peacetime civilization.Ã Through Odyssey, we gain an understanding of what is proper or improper in relationships between father and son, god and mortal, servant and master, guest and host, and--importantly--man and woman.Ã Women play a vital role in the movement of this narrative.Ã Unlike in The Iliad, where they are chiefly prizes to be won, bereft of identity, the women of Odyssey are unique in their personality, intentions, and relationship towards men.Ã Yet, despite the fact that no two women in this epic are alike, each--through her vices or virtues-- helps to delineate the role of the ideal woman.Ã Below, we will show the importance of Circe, Calypso, Nausicaa, Cly taemestra, and Penelope in terms of the movement of the narrative and in defining social roles for the Ancient Greeks. Before we delve into the traits of individual characters, it is important to understand certain assumptions about women that prevailed in the Homeric Age.Ã By modern standards, the Ancient Greeks would be considered a rabidly misogynistic culture.Ã Indeed, the notoriously sour Boetian playwright Hesiod-- who wrote about fifty years before Homer-- proclaimed "Zeus who thunders on high made women to be an evil to mortal men, with a nature to do evil (Theogony 600)."Ã While this view may have been extreme even for the Greeks, they were convinced of the physical and intellectual inferiority of women.Ã Thus, they believed that it was better for all--... ...ocial structure of a defunct culture that was just as complex, if not more complex, than our own.Ã It defined and sustained Greek society for hundreds of years; much like the Bible once did in Christian nations.Ã Yet, despite its archaic nature, The Odyssey remains fresh two and a half millennia after its conception.Ã Homer's world has woven the fantastic together with the ordinary in such a way that it will never fall apart.Ã In a significant sense, The Odyssey is immortal. Ã Works Cited: Fagles, Robert. The Odyssey.Ã New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1996. Katz, Marilyn.Ã Penelope's Renown. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991 Hesiod.Ã "Theogony."Ã Perseus. Web. 24 Mar. 2015 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0130 Morford, Mark.Ã Classical Mythology.Ã 5th edition. White Plains, NY: Logman, 1995. Ã Important Role of Women in Homer's Odyssey Essay example -- The Role o Ã For the Greeks, Homer's Odyssey was much more than just an entertaining tale of gods, monsters, and men, it served as cultural paradigm from which every important role and relationship could be defined.Ã This book, much more so than its counter part The Iliad, gives an eclectic view of the Achean's peacetime civilization.Ã Through Odyssey, we gain an understanding of what is proper or improper in relationships between father and son, god and mortal, servant and master, guest and host, and--importantly--man and woman.Ã Women play a vital role in the movement of this narrative.Ã Unlike in The Iliad, where they are chiefly prizes to be won, bereft of identity, the women of Odyssey are unique in their personality, intentions, and relationship towards men.Ã Yet, despite the fact that no two women in this epic are alike, each--through her vices or virtues-- helps to delineate the role of the ideal woman.Ã Below, we will show the importance of Circe, Calypso, Nausicaa, Cly taemestra, and Penelope in terms of the movement of the narrative and in defining social roles for the Ancient Greeks. Before we delve into the traits of individual characters, it is important to understand certain assumptions about women that prevailed in the Homeric Age.Ã By modern standards, the Ancient Greeks would be considered a rabidly misogynistic culture.Ã Indeed, the notoriously sour Boetian playwright Hesiod-- who wrote about fifty years before Homer-- proclaimed "Zeus who thunders on high made women to be an evil to mortal men, with a nature to do evil (Theogony 600)."Ã While this view may have been extreme even for the Greeks, they were convinced of the physical and intellectual inferiority of women.Ã Thus, they believed that it was better for all--... ...ocial structure of a defunct culture that was just as complex, if not more complex, than our own.Ã It defined and sustained Greek society for hundreds of years; much like the Bible once did in Christian nations.Ã Yet, despite its archaic nature, The Odyssey remains fresh two and a half millennia after its conception.Ã Homer's world has woven the fantastic together with the ordinary in such a way that it will never fall apart.Ã In a significant sense, The Odyssey is immortal. Ã Works Cited: Fagles, Robert. The Odyssey.Ã New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1996. Katz, Marilyn.Ã Penelope's Renown. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991 Hesiod.Ã "Theogony."Ã Perseus. Web. 24 Mar. 2015 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0130 Morford, Mark.Ã Classical Mythology.Ã 5th edition. White Plains, NY: Logman, 1995. Ã