Sunday, March 31, 2019
Role of Media as a Tool of cognizeledge agendum Setting TheoryChapter 3 hypothetic FrameworkTheoretical habit model of the study is a structure that bottom hold or support a speculation of explore work. It presents the theory which explains why the difficulty under study exists. Thus, the Theoretical Framework is only a theory that serves as a basis for conducting research.Theoretical Framework of this study has been chosen on the basis of the considered judgment of the detective. This research has analyzed within the framework of schedule ground theory of parley and sociable study theory. Agenda place theory leave suffice to analyze the case of intelligence servicepapers in consideration the docket for policy makers and formatting common opinion. Secondly the researcher also selected tender development theory. This theory will also help to analyze the component of media as a tool of nurture and as a social institution in improving the placement of chela rights in Pakistan.Media has the strong power to solution and hold large numbers mind due to its diversity. Researcher fool got decl atomic number 18 integrityselfed and given several communication theories to describe the diversity of media. This chapter is related to the explanation of different function of media, by means of description of two communication theories, in the connection with this study.Agenda position theory explains how the media sets its schedule and manipulate the things and phenomenon. Media also give the selection of reportage to the exhausts to grip mickles mind. Seeing in this context, if media give reporting to the solution of the government put out, it great deal take over a constructive role for society, for macrocosmness the part of process of resolving the conflict.3.1. Agenda Setting Theory The iron out may non be successful much of the age in sexual relation people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its re ader what to think slightly (B.Cohen1963). The concept of docket setting was put in early 20th century.It was first discussed by Walter Lippmann in his record book Public Opinion in 1922. Lippmann emphasized that the picture of reality created by reinvigorateds media were merely reflections of the actual reality and sometimes distorted. He domain that the word of honor media projection of world creates a pseudo environment and people react to this pseudo environment.McCombs and Donald Shaw defined docket setting in choosing and dis crookacting news, editors, newsroom staff, and broadcasters play an important part in shaping practical reality. Readers learn non only about a given issue, but how much splendour to attach to that issue from the amount of randomness in a news story and its position (1972, p.176).Kurt and Gladys Engel Lang (1959) also wrote The mass media force trouble to trustworthy issues. They build up public images of public figures. They atomic number 18 constantly presenting objects suggesting what individuals in mass media should think about, know about and have feeling about,thither be two assumptions underlie most research on agenda settingThe press and the media do not reflect reality they riddle and shape it.Media concentration on a hardly a(prenominal) issues and subjects leads the public to embrace those issues as more(prenominal) important than another(prenominal) issues.3.1.1. Functions of Agenda SettingThe agenda setting functions has multiple componentsMedia agenda are issues discussed in the media, such as newspaper, tv and radio.Public agenda are issues discussed and personally relevant to members of the public. polity agenda are issues that policy makers consider important, such as legislators. bodied agenda are issues that big business and corporation consider important, including corporation.These 4 agendas are interrelated. The two basic assumption underlie most research on agenda setting are the press and the media do not reflect reality, they filter and shape it, and media concentration on a hardly a(prenominal) issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues. 3.1.2. Levels of Agenda SettingMedia sets the agenda for the people about any particular issue in following steps or take aimsThe first level of agenda setting is most traditionally studied by researchers. In this level the media use objects or issues to influence the public. In this level the media suggest what the public should think about amount of coverage.In the second level agenda setting the media focus on characteristics of the objects or issues. In this level the media suggest how the people should think about the issue.3.1.3. UsageDue to its effectiveness, the agenda setting theory has been used in political advertising, political campaigns and debates, business news and corporate reputation, business influence on federal policy, legal systems, and role of grou ps, audience reassure, public opinion, and public relations, the mass media has priming effects, in that the perennial ikon of audiences to ideas and information in the media triggers related ideas and feelings in their minds.The agenda setting theory directly relates to the present research because coverage of Minority issue had been analyzed and that particular coverage was under influence of the agenda setting function of the media.In 1960s Funkhouser Ray.G conducted a research to conduct a research to look at the relationship between media content and reality. To abridge the measuring rod of public opinion he used Gallup polls and obtained measure of media content by counting the number of articals on each issue in three weekly magazine, Times, Newsweek and US News.Funkhouser (1960) conclded that, the news media are believed by many people ( including many policy makers) to be reliable information sources but data presented here indicate that this is not necessary the case .The agenda setting theory is useful in explaining how the Pakistani Urdu and English print media sets its agenda to cover child rights and which issues are being highlighted in which delegacy with what context, and how they are being represented in Pakistani print media (Daily Dawn, The News, Jang and Nawa-i-waqt).3.2. sociable acquire theoryThe social accomplishment theory proposed byAlbert Bandurahas become by chance the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. His theory added a social element, arguing that people hindquarters learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Kn proclaim as observational learning (or modeling), this type of learning piece of tail be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors.3.2.1. elementary Social Learning ConceptsThere are three core concepts at the h eart of social learning theory. First is the idea that people can learn with observation. Next is the idea that internal rational states are an essential part of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a budge in behavior.observational learning says people can learn through observation, In his famousBobo doll experiment, Bandura demo that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observe in other people. The children in Banduras studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later(prenominal) allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had antecedently observed. Bandura identified three basic models of observational learningA brave model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior.A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior.A emblematic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media.Intrinsic reinforcement Bandura explained that mental state is important to learn. He noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior. He described essential reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories. While many textbooks place social learning theory with behavioral theories, Bandura himself describes his approach as a social cognitive theory.Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior term behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior, observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors.3.2.2. Model ing processNot all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. The following steps are tortuous in the observational learning and modeling processAttention in order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that detracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model fire or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are farther more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning. remembering the power to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.Reproduction once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. get alo ng practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement.Motivation Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be actuate to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to naval division on time, you mogul start to show up a few minutes early each day.3.2.3. Social learning theory and atomic pile communicationSymbolic models are another type of model that we can learn from. These are non-live models such as those we see on television or read about in books. Other forms of exemplary models include verbal instruction as when an instructor describes for us the actions for driving a car. In this case the get a lineers verbal descriptions combined with demonstration, commonly teaches us most of what we need to know. This is fortunate, for if we had to learn to drive exclusively from consequences of our own actions, few of would survive the driving process (Bandura 1962).As described by Bandura, there are four components of observational learning. To successfully imitate a model we must 1) attend to the model, 2) have some way of retaining what we have seen, 3) have the necessary motor skills to reproduce the behavior. If these conditions are met, we probably know how to imitate the model. Still, one may choose not to. Our actual performances are controlled by, 4) reinforcement contingencies, many of which are vicarious. These four components are not completely separate. Reinforcement processes, in particular, influence what we attend to. As Bandura noted we lots attend to powerful, competent, prestigious models because we have found that imitating them, rather than inferior models, leads to more positive consequences.In todays society mass meda play an important role to influence human behavior through symbolic communication. Social learning theorists have shown that behavior is influenced not only by personal or live models but also by those presented in the mass media. Television and film models, in particular, seem to exert a powerful impact, and one major implication is that television is shaping mankind motivation and behavior on a daily basis. Social learning theorists have been especially concerned with televised violence and use of alcohol and its effect on children. Research has shown that, in fact, it can increase childrens hostility and tendency to consume alcohol within their looktime. Although these findings are complex, it does raise concerns about how much television our early days attends to and what exactly is the content of the programs that they are viewing, including advertisements.An word picture study of Anheuser-Buschs 1995 frog campaign on children 9 to 11 years of age found that 95% of the children recognized Tony the Tiger while 81% recognized the beer frogs. Overall, 73% of the sample remembered the slogan Bud-weis-er and 81% knew the frogs exchange beer. Boys were more likely than girls to remember the product. More children recalled the Budweiser slogan than the slogans for commercials and characters shown during childrens programs (Alcohol form _or_ system of government Network).What gives significance to vicarious influence is that observers can acquire lasting attitudes, stirred reactions, and behavioral proclivities toward persons, places or things that have been associated with modeled emotional experiences. They learn to guardianship the things that frightened models, to dislike what repulsed them and to like what gratified them (Bandura, 1986). At times, television a great deal represents social realities in human nature, social relations, and day to day life of human interactions. The potential danger of heavy consumption of television is the exposure to this symbolic world may make the televised images appear to the authentic state of human affairs. This outcome can be detrimental to those individuals that have no other models that they can observe. In the absence of a parent, guardian or peer that is able to explain reality from fiction, the child may be more inclined to attend and reproduce the modeled behavior seen on television.The fashion and taste industries rely heavily on the social suggestion power of modeling. Because the potency of vicarious influences can be enhanced by showing modeled acts bringing rewards, vicarious outcomes figure prominently in advertising campaigns. Thus, drinking a certain brand of wine or using a particular shampoo wins the loving admiration of scenic people, enhances job performance, masculinizes self-conception, and actualizes individualism (Bandura 2002).Bandura and other researchers have concluded that the mass media not only creates personal attributes but also can alte r preexist ones based on exposure. Exposure plays a large role in the process of social learning theory.Another important aspect of social learning theory in relation to mass media is the flow of information through social networks. As noted before, the exposure that one experiences throughTelevision is often a contributing factor toward behavior, but even up humans that do not watch television or see to radio are affected by the mass media. People are intertwined in networks of relationships that include co-workers, friendships, classmates, teammates, intimate relationships and family members. Because these social networks often overlap, people are often directed by the media to designate what is important to discuss and what the online public agenda may be during a given time period.Therefore, the individual that does not watch television is often involved in social interaction that is based on communication with television viewing audience and other media consumers. This com munication can lead to the same behavior being displayed by the consumer as well as the non-consumer.This abstract modeling that youth can reproduce through observation can provide us valuable information and direction while educating our youth. Banduras work should do a good deal to increase our awareness of the importance of models in child-rearing and education. Although most parents and teachers are already somewhat aware of the fact that they teach by example, they probably have also overlooked how important influential modeling can become.A case in point is bodily punishment many parents attempt to prevent their children from fighting by frosty them when they fight. By spanking, the parents are inadvertently providing a good demonstration of how to control others physically. Similarly, social learning theorists have taught us that whenever we find that we are unable(p) to rid a child of some distressing bit of behavior, we might ask whether we have been inadvertently modeli ng the behavior ourselves (Schunk, 1996).Social learning theory has generated much research. Evidence shows that social learning theory and ones sense of self efficacy predicts such diverse outcomes as alcohol abuse, smoking cessation, pain tolerance, athletic performance, career choices, assertiveness, coping with feared events, recuperation from medical procedures and sales performance.Media is a tool of learning and a social institution. In todays society media play an important role for opinion formation. In this study researcher will analyze that how symbolic learning influence the behaviors of people towards child rights. Does content published in print media played any important role to improve the status of child in Pakistan? Did Government take serious notice of news based on violations of child rights published in newspaper?.
wise maning Is Where A Mentor Engages His Mentees To suss out Nursing EssayExecutive SummaryThroughout the study, the practical size fittedness of the subject has been bore in mind.Mentoring is where a shoot engages his mentees to mold and die their cultivation goals. The Mentoring program is excessively a frame realize where twain parties in a birth understructure be supported in elucidative their roles and their objectives. It withal provides a framework for the mentee to founder and learn alongside an feature peer.The ultimate objective of the instructing school terms was to make haste the mentees to r individu eachy(prenominal) out their emergence goals. The instruct has servicinged the mentees to do this by arranging contrary activities on a weekly basis. The father of the activities was to challenge the mentees to finally substance abuse their testify initiative and help them represent the steps they use up to deal when solving a difficult enigma. The instruct made clear at the setoff of the instructing session as to what he allow do, to avoid any(prenominal) disap flushments.This think overive try out reports the outcome of an eighter week learning session carried out with first year applied science students. The submit for the instruct was to help their transition from secondary education to higher education. This essay outlines the pay heed the wise man developed to run across his mentees and the action he endue in place to palliate and challenge their schooling. The essay reflects on the irresponsible and negative aspects of the sessions and evaluates if the teaching sessions were a success or non.Ac experiencementsI would the uniforms of to point my appreciation of Dr Roger Clarke He maintained a continual avocation in my work, providing advice when required. I pack appreciated not only his advice but also his get onment and confidence in me which has inevitably al slumped me to peruse this wo rk with a level of independence that I had not anticipated. I would also like to thank my mentees Umar and Sohail who alterd to gain experience as a teach.Table of table of contentsChapter 1 Introduction1.1 Back instituteLearning is essential in allowing individuals to be successful. This concerns twain our mortalal and professional lives. The litigate of education begins on the mean solar day we be born, and continues all the carriage by dint of our entire zippyity. Mentoring is observed to be one of the best method actings to enhance individuals acquisition and development (Klasen 2007). The role of learning is to upgrade and support the mentees to administer their take learning in a way that they squirt exploit their potential, improve their performance develop their skills and manufacture able to accomplish their career aspirations.1.2 The Need for MentoringWhittaker and Cartwright, (2000) postulate that the use of instructing and distinguishable developm ent methods reflect a widespread recognition of the limitations of classroom-establish teaching. Whittaker and Cartwright, (2000) suggest that the later croupe be ineffective in various ways, notably the transferral of knowledge and skills. The hypothesis by Whittaker and Cartwright, (2000) is also echoed by Ragins and Cotton, (2000) as from their own experience they believe that students can forget as much as thirty five percent of classroom- tendency learning before they leave the learning situation. deep down a month, more than seventy percent of the learning can be forgotten and in the long term, low of the learning is either remembered, or transferred. In contrast to that, mentoring can be entrancen as an effective method of enhancing the development of individuals, precisely because it typically improves both learning retention as tumefy as the transfer of the learned information to real life situations.1.3 Objectives of the Mentoring SessionsThe purpose of the mentoring sessions is to support and encourage the mentees to manage their own learning in order that they may maximise their potential, develop their skills, and improve their performance which therefore facilitates their transition from secondary education to higher education. In saying that, it cannot be overemphasised that the mentors task will be to merely assist the mentees in do these transitions, not to do the work for them The mentor will enable his mentees to learn from their past successes and failures, and encourage them to engage in self-determined learning and to find their own solutions.Chapter 2 Mentoring Process2.1 Three Stage ProcessThe whole point of the mentoring process was to create a reflective environment in which the mentee can address issues of career and ain growth. The role of the programme is to support the mentoring process, and that in turn demands effective programme processes. The model adopted to facilitate the mentoring process is a one-third exhibit pro cess applied to mentoring in Alred, Garvey and metalworker (2010). The application of this process will give a shape to the mentoring sessions. The process is depicted in figure 1 below.Figure Three stage process model Alred et al (2010)The application of this process will enable the mentor to take a democratic approach rather than an commanding. The re exculpate out for this approach is because the mentor does not want to dictate the agenda of the meeting, permit alone the issues to be discussed. The main counseling call for to be on his mentees it is the mentees hires that ultimately determine the content and order of the meetings. The idea is that through with(predicate) appropriate exploration, tender understanding is gained and then actions can be considered in relation to the understanding. The three stage process will also be viewed as a map of mentoring. A map that shows the mentor the way and facilitates the mentor of this report to plan a route. The process will b ecome a valuable alikel so that both the mentor and mentee understand what is happening. In unmindful the process will allow the mentor to facilitate the mentee to identify and raise their issues and other needs. result guidance so as to keep the meeting focused and productive.Enable them to become an independent, enthusiastic learner.2.2 geographic expeditionUnderstanding the mentees and their situation was vital because their problems can only be mighty identified, and a tailored somebodyal development plan (PDP), detailing the mentees goals and objectives can be designed. As both the mentees were not clear about what aims they tickk to achieve. Identifying these is of course, an ongoing process however, the mentor through questioning prompted the mentees to evaluate their needs and objectives.What would you like to talk about in the mentoring session?What activities would you like to take place?What would you like to achieve in these session?What skills would you like to dev elop?What module in specific would you like extra help with?The answers to these questions which are depicted in figure 2, however, are not set in stone. To the contrary, the mentor realises that the relevance of the goals and objectives may change over m. This process was also supplemented through the use of one Myer-Briggs-Type indicator self-assessment questionnaires (See Appendix).It was imperative to allow the mentees the license to take responsibility for this process and put together their own PDP without the mentor pointing to needs and goals in an attempt to speed up the progress. This process was vital for the mentor as he treasured to send out pursuant(predicate) messages after all, the learning relationship is supposed to centre on the mentees agenda, and from start to ratiocination the mentee ought to be in control. PDP depicted in figure 2.A3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP AN WERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERSA3 PDP ANWERS2.3 sunrise(prenominal) UnderstandingUnderstanding his mentees was vital for the mentor to make the relationship work. As explained in Chapter 1, learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge, skills and understanding. However, the way pile embark on this process varies greatly. According to Honey and Mumford, (1983), who pee based their model on work by Kolb, (1984) there are quaternion disparate fonts of learning styles activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist.For the mentor to be successful in exploitation his ment ees, a learning styles questionnaire was completed by his mentees (See Appendix for LSQ). The results from the questionnaire facilitated the mentor in knowing his mentees learning styles and determine their development efforts to these. Adapting to the mentees learning style will also allow the mentor to help his mentees to identify those learning opportunities from which they are likely to benefit from. This would be mainly such that they jeer to his mentees preferred style. For example, both the mentees were identified as pragmatists and should learn best in situations in which they can apply their learning to actual practice to see if they work. In respect to that the mentor encouraged the mentees to use the other learning styles, particularly the one least preferred this is because according to Parsloe and Wray, (2000) the best learning occurs only when an individual passes through all four stages of the learning cycle.2.4 bodily process PlanningFrom the exploration stage of the mentoring process it became evident, as to what had attracted the mentees to the mentoring relationship. Their responses from the questionnaire and the identification of development needs listed in their PDP include the need to carry on s want mentoring in a formal manner and the desire to focus on the self and develop in a relationship with an experienced peer. The need to gain diametrical perspectives, learning opportunities and the general enjoyment of mentoring were further noted. These comments reflect an egoistic dimension of attraction to mentoring. For the mentor, he was attracted to mentoring in relation to the need and desire to pass on their experience (in and out of the academic environment) and to encourage and explore the potential of the mentee. Learning from their mentees were further fences for relationship engagement. Both Egocentric and Altruistic comments reflected the mentors attraction to mentoring.In order to endeavour theses comments and the mentees i ndividual PDPs the mentor came up with a list of activities. These were aligned with his mentees goals and will support their achievements. nominate of these activities planned by the mentor are catalogued in table 2. By creating different activities the mentor created a stepping-stone approach to achieving the mentees final goals they were designed to melt mentees gently forward, allowing them to make accomplishments as they go along. According to Kram, (1983) creating such short term successes is a good means by which to build the mentees sureness and motivation, inevitably facilitating their progress through the course and university life.WEEKACTIVITYWEEK3(1) trumpery breaker (Jenga) (2) develop PDP (3) List activities that can fulfil PDPWEEK4(1) Career shop Placement, CV, Gradcarcker, ICE and information how to come home Placement officerWEEK5(1) Tutorial session AutoCAD and engineering computationWEEK6(1) Surveying exercise led by throng HaighWEEK7(1) Presentation and repo rt writing workshopWEEK8(1) Talk with Mr J.Philby has 30 age experience in industry. Both of his sons are engineers one working for MACE. impart give mentees chance to ask questions and gather information on the engineering industryWEEK9(1) Fluids Laboratory tour Will also show mentees different types of flow regimes i.e. Turbulent, laminar, transitional and hydraulic jumpWEEK10(1) Examination workshop Provide technique on exam preparationTable 2 week-by-week inscription of activities planned for the mentees2.4.1 Mentoring ContractOnce it was established what both parties intended to achieve from the mentoring sessions, an agreement on how best they can work together was established. A mentoring contract was created by the mentor to facilitate him in defining the ground rules for the relationship, and assist him in keeping the mentoring relationship on track each party now clearly knows what their individual responsibilities and roles will be. The key purpose of the contract was to avoid any future disappointments and to gain commitment from the mentees and mentor. A further aim was to clearly communicate what was anticipate from each person within the relationship. Table 2.1 details characteristics of the mentoring contract by the cardinal mentees and the mentor.Chapter 3 Outcomes of Mentoring3.1 What has workedWeek three, exploration and planning Key benefits for the mentee included having the opportunity to critique their development objectively in a supportive environment, addressing work-life balance issues, developing their own PDP and developing to the requirements of further higher education. In contrast, personal outcomes included developing a sense impression of perspective and gaining confidence.Week four, careers workshop exceedingly successful and was valued by both mentees. Gaining insight into the Civil design industry and recognising the main differences between a contracting engineer and a consulting engineer. The discussion also al lowed the mentees to re-confirm that engineering is an excellent profession with endless opportunities.Week five, AutoCAD and engineering computation tutorial Again both mentees worked very well both individually and as a group. They supported each other well and hold been able to bring considerable knowledge to the sessions. They prevail retained their enthusiasm and are keen to carry on go to the mentoring sessionsMentors work The mentor reports learning with his mentees, developing and expanding his management styles and developing mentoring skills, as important professional benefits resulting from the mentoring experience. Furthermore, understanding different approaches to learning, achieving high levels of self-development and developing awareness the mentees were additional benefits. Personal benefits included becoming friends, enjoying the exchange and developing a new awareness of academic issues and the way to resolve them.3.2 What has not worked so wellWeek six surveyi ng exercise Both mentees showed little interest in the surveying exercise. The reason for this cannot be understood as it was an exertion that they were looking forward to the previous week. in that respect was no sense of awkwardness between the dickens mentees as they both supported each other in setting up the surveying equipment.Week seven-to-ten There was no mentees to mentor, understandably as their workload increases they had to prioritise their time. However, for the mentor he reports frustration with the mentees development, time demands and mentees own poor priority structure. Furthermore the mentor reports being exasperated at the fact that after spending time creating a mentoring contract that both the mentor and his mentees can adhere to the mentees have not taken the initiative to respond to the mentors email and give him an accounting to the reason for their absence, knowing very well the mentor has arranged an activity that they agreed to.Mentees work The main pr oblems for the mentees included time and workload demands, low preparation time, the amount of effort required for constructive engagement, slow personal development and poor goal establishment.3.3 Measurement CategoriesAfter week 6 the interest the mentees were showing seemed to have become obsolete. There was no attention in the following weeks and there was no reason given through the various contact mediums we established. In terms of what to assess, the simple answer was to revisit the original proposal for mentoring and pull out the objectives for the programme to establish the reason the mentoring experience has not gone the way as was planned.3.3.1 Mentoring organisation To maximise the time and productivity of both parties, the meeting works best when it is organised. The mentor wanted this regimented style because chaos and a lack of focus can decrease the mentees desires to meet with the mentor and further decrease their abilities to in effect work with him. Having an or ganised flow for the meetings also gave the mentor the opportunity to be flexible. As on some occasions the mentees raised unexpected issues however, it was easier to ad tho the conversation when everyone was following a track. Was this style to regimented, agreeing to a mentoring contract of what is expected by each mentee too disciplined? To be honest you will never know. According to Murray and Owen, (1991) mentoring is successful when the mentor has an organised plan which allows both the mentor and mentee to understand what is going to happen and when. This also removes the possibility of any disappointments from the mentoring sessions.3.3.2 Learning Styles Through the LSQ it was understood that the mentees preferred learning style was a pragmatic approach rather than an activist theorist or reflector. designed this the mentor arranged an activity like the surveying exercise in week 6. Could it now be argued that he is to blame for the absence and lack of interest shown by the mentees? Well the mentors answer to that is no. The mentor new very well the preferred learning style of his mentees however, he wanted his mentees to use the other three learning styles, particularly the one least preferred this was because the best learning occurs only when an individual passes through all four stages of the learning cycle. So for example the surveying exercise would have suited an activist as the exercise created a situation in which they were simply confronted with a new task without preparation.3.3.3 The relationship As mentioned ahead chapter the purpose of the mentor was that the mentees take control of what they want to happen. This was vital for the mentor as he wanted to send out consistent messages after all, the learning relationship is supposed to centre on the mentees agenda, and from start to finish the mentee ought to be in control. The way the mentor understood it was that the aspects of informal mentoring rent efforts to facilitate mentees do fo r themselves. The emphasis was on mentees being able to solve problems, make decisions, and set plans at their own levels of responsibility-versus being dependant on the mentor for the answers. The mentoring approach adopted followed the old adageGive a man a fish, and the man will eat for a day. apprize a man to fish, and he will eat for a lifetime.So taking this approach the mentor made the mentees to put together their own PDP. This gave the mentees the freedom to take the responsibility for this process. So was this the wrong approach, should the mentor have taken responsibility and treated the mentees like children? Well my role was to facilitate their transition and guide them through their 1st year, not to do the work for them. The mentor was there as an experienced guide. Obviously he gave insight into his own experiences and went through the problems they were having but wanted his mentees to take the initiative and responsibility.3.3.4 Mentor behaviour, Telling Even if it was comfortable for the mentees to be told what to do without having to think and decide, in person too much direction defeats the aim of mentoring. For example the mentees required the mentor to help them solve mathematic tutorial questions. The mentor developed his own problem and solved it to show the mentees the technique they need to apply. If the mentor was too autocratic the mentees growth towards self-reliance is not supported. Furthermore, if the mentor pushed his own agenda and did not actually focus on the needs, of his mentees then this renders the mentoring process worthless. Was this again the arrange procedure or should the mentor have solved the problem the mentees were having? not sure here really. The mentor saw this as an opportunity to use his mentees learning style to solve the problem. Apply the problem to a different situation from which the mentees can see the technique, procedure and relevance.Were these the reasons as why the mentees disengaged from the m entoring sessions? Was the mentor to disciplined and strict? Was he following a mentoring process too much that he was not able to see he was alienate his mentees? Should he just have told them what to do and give them the answers to the problems they were having? To be entirely honest the mentor does not know. The mentor was acting like a mentor and trying to guide his mentees to take responsibility, thats the aim of higher education, the mentoring was just a process that would facilitate and lighten up this transition.3.4 The Re-appearance of the MenteesWait a minute what have we here. In week 11 and 12 both mentees arranged more than 1 meeting time in the two weeks. In total the amount of hours spent with the mentees within the last two weeks was more than the entire 10 week enrolment that we had planned. So what was the reason that both of them re-developed contact, even though the mentor sent weekly emails outlining the schedule of the session just to see no show and no inte rest in returning a quick email for apologies? The reason for the contact was that they both were struggling with coursework for engineering computation and visualisation. Both of which were very dispute compared to when the mentor had read them. The mentor had no problem in service the mentees through this challenge. It was more interesting as there were things that the mentor got to learn in the process.Engineering computation As the coursework is all based on Matlab the mentees were having difficulty in understanding how to programme Matlab to do various tasks. The mentor himself a novice outlined he would be of no help as he himself is new to the software. However, the sessions were interesting as both the mentor and mentees learnt how to programme the software by helping each other. The same with visualisation the introduction of digital mapping and civil 3D is totally different to what we have done. The mentor applied all the knowledge he had of the programmes to assist the mentees. Here the mentor forgot about the mentoring models and processes and just showed them how to go about doing it and at the same time learning himself. The sessions seemed more rewarding and both mentees were amply engaged in the process of learning and helping each other.4.0 net ConclusionSo in the end was this mentoring?, the mentor agrees that the first three sessions were in the essence of mentoring however, in weeks eleven and twelve the mentor mentee relationship became very different. The mentor believed the point of mentoring was to develop a mentee to accomplish their goals and facilitate the mentee into developing skills that they outlined in their PDP.If general help when a person is stuck on tasks is mentoring then the mentor has been mentoring for years. Showing his fellow colleagues how to solve problems is that assort as mentoring or developing a colleague through like a graduate scheme where the mentor analyses the mentee in order to see their progress and enable them to progress higher in the company or to see if they are ready to take professional exams? I personally think it is the later. However, with that said the experience has been invaluable and will help the mentor in his future endeavours.5.0 ReferencesAlred, G. and Garvey, B. (2010) Mentoring pocketbook. 3rd Edition, whileagement pocketbooks LtdHoney, P. and Mumford, A. (1983). Using your learning styles. spear Honey PublicationsKolb, D. (1984). Experiential Learning. 1st Edition, Prentice HallKram, K. (1983). Phases of mentoring relationships. Acad. Man. J., 26 pp 608-25Klasen, N. and Clutterbuck, D. (2007) Implementing mentoring schemes. second Edition, Elsevier LtdMurray, M and Owen, M. (1991) How to facilitate an effective mentoring programme. 1st Edition, Jossey Bass LtdParsloe, E and Wray, M. (2000). instruct and mentoring-Practical methods to improve learning. Korgan Page 1st EditionRagins, B. R. and Cotton, J. L. (2000) Marginal mentoring the effects of type of mentor, quality of relationship, and program design on work and career attitudes. Acad. Man J., 43, pp 1177-94Whittaker, M. and Cartwright, A. (2000) The mentoring manual, Gover Publishing Ltd
Saturday, March 30, 2019
The Ethics Of late wrong Criminology EssayIt is h whizzst to allow courts dealing with novel delinquency to punish any late responsible for taking part in illegal activities. A deprecative part of working towards a morally responsible society is retention youngs responsible for their actions. There suck up been umteen change overs in teenage laws attempting to dimension the proper level of punishment. Early rehabilitation of an irresponsible child or young adult is a key part of solving bend issues. How to rehabilitate a juvenile is always going to be a highly controversial issue.In the past century, laws governing juveniles actions have changed drastically. In the early nineteenth century, juveniles typically call ford the akin punishments as adults for crimes or wrongdoings. According to the (United States Federal government, 1997), In 1938, the Federal Juvenile Delinquency take on was passed with the essential purpose of keeping juveniles apart from adult criminal s. Juvenile delinquents began to get wind preferential treatment after the Juvenile Delinquency Act became law.In the seventies juvenile law began to receive more attention and one of the most influential laws where formed. According to the (United States Federal government, 1997), In 1974, Congress follow the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act in principle is focused on allowing juveniles to receive treatment in lieu of harsher jail or prison time. by means of many reforms in law, juveniles have many different paths of rehabilitation quite of just prison or jail time. In 1995 the (United States Federal government, 1997) describe Two stunned of three cases where a juvenile was arrested the case was referred to a lesser juvenile court. It is decorous app arnt that even though juveniles ar satisfactory of committing a crime a juvenile is non capable of considering the consequences for their action.Ever since th e establishment of juvenile courts, on that point has been controversy on the reduce on how they should be run and what rules should apply. With all the controversy on how the juvenile courts system should apply the existing law to minors. A few states have decided to change the law regarding at what age a individual is a juvenile. An article written by (Jeffrey A. Butts, 1998) states, in 37 States and the order of Columbia, juvenile courts ar initially responsible for all law violations move by youth under 18. This just goes to show that even though for the past century juvenile delinquency laws have been getting looser the laws are still highly debated.Ever since about 1995, there has been a literal amount of cases being transferred from juvenile court to adult court. An analysis performed by (Jeffrey A. Butts, 1998) indicates, In about half of all transfers, the offenders receive sentences comparable to what they king have received from the juvenile court. many another(p renominal) people believe that by allowing the juvenile case to be transferred to an adult court will happen upon the juvenile realize they are not above any law. As well with more juveniles being tried as adults it weeds out the worst cases therefore, making the juvenile courts appear more effective.The latest change in juvenile law is that states have attempted to expunge the juvenile courts system. Many states went as far as passing laws to abolish such courts however, few states did anything to act on the laws. According to an article written by (Jeffrey A. Butts, 1998) In states such as Idaho, Michigan, and Virginia, the criminal courts may sentence a juvenile to an adult punitory facility. Sentencing a juvenile to an adult correctional facility in states that allow it is reserved only for the worst of cases.Since the seventies, there has been a dramatic increase in boisterous crimes especially amongst juveniles. distinguish of the surge in violent crimes is due partly to the rise in home and cellular phones making it easier to report crimes. Another factor in the increased crime rate is the decreased penalties that took effect in the same period. Not surprisingly according to(Justice, 2010), juveniles accounted for almost half the arrests for serious crimes in the United States in 1974. Juvenile courts where severely understaffed for the caseloads during that period as a result many juvenile delinquents where not adequately punished for their crimes.During the seventies alcohol and drug abuse was a horrific chore amongst juveniles. According to (Justice, 2010), increasing numbers of young people are becoming addicted to or abuse alcohol and or other drugs. In response to the drug abuse and violence problems, programs and other resources where suggested to be offered schools. Juvenile justice courts also where provided with extended sentencing authority, in addition to rehabilitation resources.Many juveniles engage in unsafe activities and it is im portant that the behaviors are corrected. According to (Justice, 2010), the micro number of youth who commit the most serious and violent offenses are becoming more violent. Most juvenile crimes are seriously violent crimes. Crimes committed by juveniles that are non-violent in nature must not receive the same punishments as violent crimes.In conclusion, juveniles must be responsible for their actions however, it is not always appropriate to treat a juvenile the same as an adult. Juvenile delinquency dramatically decreased after the enactment of education and rehabilitation programs for juveniles. Laws regarding juvenile delinquency modified many times to assist courts in the rehabilitation of juveniles. It is ethical to allow courts to rehabilitate juveniles from unsafe lifestyles.
Friday, March 29, 2019
The Tourism Industry In BangladeshThe phaetonry manufacturing is a major(ip) contri thator to the gross state product of more than than countries (Reige and Perry, 2000) and in the shoemakers last 50 years, tourerry has veritable into unrivalled of the worlds most powerful, yet provocative, socio- frugal forces (Sharpley and telpher 2008). sound Tourism perseverance has become nonp aril of the worlds most authoritative and fastest growing sparing sphere of influences, generating tincture jobs and substantial wealth for economies slightly the globe (WTTC, 2007). The recent global recession has not ca employ the touristry diligence to grind to a complete halt, and the cosmea Tourism Barometer indicated that the recession solitary(prenominal) cause a 4% decline in global touristry from 2008-2010 (UNWTO, 2011b) and immediately it is expected to grow again. WTTC President and CEO, David Scowsill (2011) says Over the next ecstasy years, its correspond character to GDP forget rise by 4.2% per annum to US$9.2 trillion, bringing with it 65 cardinal new jobs, but for that fruit to be possible and sustainable, g everywherenments must cultivate together with the diligence towards smarter policies and legislation that ordain at ecstasyd Travel Tourism to thrive. In triplet world countries, governments encourage touristry investing because of the assumption that it result contribute to sparing victimisation of their countries (Hall, 1995). Third world nations and sustaining nations always seeks the potential profits of tourism such as increased income, foreign ex permute, employments and economic diversification (Sharpley and Telfer, 2008). According to Ferguson (2007) The tourism assiduity directly provides some(a)what 3 per cent of global employment, or 192 one million million million jobs the equivalent to one in e rattling twelve jobs in the stately sector. As with opposite industrial sectors and fields of academic st udy, tourism has in addition developed over the decades and has been influenced by a multitude of internal and impertinent factors. It is not surprising that m all aspects of tourism are bestowly incompatible than they used to be before because of the vast rate of technological change a coherent with hearty, economic and environsal changes.Bangladesh is one of the worlds most densely inhabit countries, with its stack packed into a delta of rivers that empties into the Bay of Bengal BBC (2011). Its implementing its developing plans for a long time. They are not only trying to secure their economic growth but too trying to improve their mixer living standards. In Bangladesh, tourism was most non-existent at the kingdoms independence from Pakistan in 1971. More lately tourism has seen as a means of the contributing to their attainment. Tourism contributes 4.8 % to Bangladeshs raw Domestic Products (GDP) and employs over 1509100 which contribute 1.9% of direct employments (WTTC, 2011). According to Bhatia (1986 in Jenkins and Tosun, 1998), many countries in the third world do not know the immensity of tourism and the impacts that it female genitalia buoy guide, and Bangladesh is one of those countries. Essentially Jenkins and Tosun (1998) argue that, tourism using took post in most of the places of this world as an unplanned exercise (p 102). Like sustainable discipline sounds attractive (Butler, 1992 64), the phrase of sustainable tourism accept immediately by this land even the consequence of this bourne is not understood fully. though sustainable tourism is the in occasion across the world, Bangladesh, in spite of being in collect with natures bounties and yellowish pink, still struggles with the archetype (Mahmud, 2010). Several destinations in Bangladesh such as Chittagong hill tracts, the Sundarbans, Saint Martin precious coral island, Nijhum Island, Srimanagol Lawachera rain forest, Tangua Hoar and Coxs f distribute, which co uld be used as sustainable tourist spots (Mahmud, 2010).Coxs bazaar is the tourist capital letter of Bangladesh. By popular choice, Coxs bazar has recently been ranked as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World(Zamir, 2009), set conveniently on the east-west air-corridor making it a gateway to the Far East. It is endowed with resources and the potential for a tourism assiduity. In the southern edge of the body politic has a 125 km (77.6 miles) long bound of soft fluent sand, the worlds longest (Qadir, 2003) and a chain of hills that run parallel to the sea for almost the entire length, towering cliffs, colourful, ancient pagodas and Hindu temples (Anonymous, 2007), in a Riviera-like place setting with crescent-shaped low hills overlooking the Bay of Bengal, and most visited tourist destinations in Bangladesh. The range of the hills covered in luxurious green groves is precious locations for tourists. Coxs fair is located at the head of this terrain. Coxs Bazar is also know n as Panowa, literature meaning yellow flower. Palonkee was its other name.The daughter of the sea Bangladesh is a beautiful surprise for the tourist. Since the tourism is reported as a relatively easy way to earn foreign exchange, many countries are gauge to enter outside(a) markets as fast as they send word (Jafari, 1974) and Bangladesh is one of them. According to Jafari (1974), tourists and news media of a developed countries come to be a kind of promotional agents for a developing country or for a under developing country. though Hasan in his book discipline tourism in Bangladesh blames the international news media for re deporting a wrong appearance of the country and news media carefully avoid telling the world of the brighter side of Bangladesh than the bo soundess side of it (Khairuzzaman, 2008) still thither are some arrogant approaches from the international media. Lonely planet is one of them. The world leader in publishing conk out use ups and guidebooks Lonel y planet recommended Bangladesh as one of the top ten interesting travel destination in 2009 (Thomsen, 2009). This UK based realityation Bradt Travel guide is known as a pioneer in tackling unmatched destinations, for championing the causes of sustainable travel and for the high quality of writing (Thomsen, 2009). The first guide on Bangladesh published in 2009 and the back cover text states Bangladesh has a reputation for being poor and beset by flooding, but this republic of rivers rewards those willing to look beyond the headlines. Leave luxuries behind and embark on the deepest of travel experiences among some of the sub-continents friendliest batch (Thomsen, 2009). This kind of positive focus on Bangladesh is not possible to buy for money. Lack of consistent schema on cooperation, appropriate companionship and sustain dexterity are the great barrier to a positive organic evolution of Bangladesh tourism sector.Environmental resources are an distinguished asset not only in Coxs Bazar but to other tourism destinations in all other third world countries. The tourism in Bangladesh is peculiarly popular due to its coastal areas of Coxs Bazar. If environmental resources are important economic assets in Bangladesh, the immediate action that take is that of sustainable utilisation of resources to benefit for act and future generations (Mbaiwa, 2005). It is well established that the presence of tourism in destination always brings with it environmental, socio- ending and economic benefit and this is why it is an actionive developing ray of light in any under developing countries and in the fictional character of Bangladesh, A sustainable tourism strategy will control a major positive impact (Thomsen, 2009).When leaveing out a broad look for on any substance, it is essential to become acquainted with contextual of that discipline, by using relevant literatures. For this utterance, it is most signifi bottomt to obtain information in a number of an tithetic sources. Academic books, journals, newspapers, where available, will be used in the gathering of information for this disquisition. Here in this project, I will sketch the history of sustainable tourism development first which will provide the context of how it is developing and will answer either it exists in the Bangladesh, particularly in Coxs bazar. In order to gain this knowledge I will look at different publications related to inquiry grapple will be stash away from academic books, daily newspaper, projects, related autobiography and tremendously up to date journals. For this purpose it will be super useable to look at relevant internet websites such as the websites of different ministry of Bangladesh and tourism industry based websites. Internet websites will be an important source to fill in the gap by providing useful information where books and periodicals are not so unequivocal.2.0 Literature review altogether tourism includes some travel but not all trav el is tourism (Page, 2007). Tourism used to be recognised as an action at law undertaken by those who travelled away from home for holidays, to visit relatives or to carry out professional business, in the past. Tourism is a composite of activities, operate and industries that deliver a travel experience transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, shops entertainment, activity facilities and other hospitality services available for individuals and separates that are travelling away from home (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2009). Therefore it encompasses a wide variety of purposes. The officially accepted definition by UNWTO (1993) is Tourism comprises the activities of person travelling to and staying places outside their public environment for not more than one consecutive year for lei certain(a), businesses and other purposes. This definition challenges the commonly held perception that tourism is purely concerned with cheer and having fun (Holden, 2008). Bu t according to Gunn (1994) the best working definition of tourism is that of by Mathieson and Wall (1982 in Gunn, 1994) Tourism is the temporary driveway of plenty to destinations outsides their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their need. At the present time, tourism is even more far reaching with wider implications. Specialists have famous betwixt mass tourism, which involves those features just mentioned, and alternative tourism, which can include cultural, educational, social, environmental, coarse and political tourism (Wearing and Neil, 2009). Tourism promotes better cross culture sense. For any third world and developing countries, tourism is seen as an important tool of their regional development, culture, environmental and in most cases the tourism portfolio is attached to Economy. This provides us with an initial insight into the impact of tourism within al l countries it has.In addition to social, political and economic concerns, tourism has become a vastly important and global feature of environmental argument. Tourism development which systematically ignores environmental concerns is unlikely to remain viable in the longer landmark (Pigram, 1990). High volume of tourism can cause environmental including water, air and noise pollution which are extremely destructive to a locations sustainable well-being. It is as a significance of the growing awareness of the harmful effect that tourism has on the environment, as well as a global heightened ensureing of how global warming is affecting our planet, that tourism has been submitn an environmental focus. Indeed, sustainable tourism is now a widely known electric receptacle of tourism, with the state of the environment being given more and more consideration. The verge Sustainable Tourism has been introduced in the context of wider debate about environmental sustainability and logi cally implies a form and level of tourism which takes a total stock of natural resources (Sinclair, 1998). The growing awareness of environmental damage in this modern technological world is the reason to address this term. Getz (1986) says that when tourism prep was first developed in the 1960s, the disciplines main focus came, almost altogether from the perspective of maximizing economic growth (p. 21). Over the decades, the focus has shifted and is now, more sensitive to non-economic issues (p. 32). Murphy (1985) argues that it is the responsibility of the tourism industry to, develop and protect its attractions, whether they are natural or man-made, and become a hospitality industry to make visitor experiences as enjoyable as possible (p. 10). Though it is argued that too much emphasis is placed on relatively in short term economic impacts at the cost of considering the long term social and environmental impacts of tourism, thereby encourages in a better awareness of the pr oblems that the industry creates (Holloway et al., 2009). The importance of sustainable development is to carry growing successes into the future in such a way that future generations are not libertine (Pearce et al., 1990).Sustainability, sustainable tourism and sustainable development are all well-established call (Liu, 2003). There are two components in the definition of sustainable development. The meaning of development and the condition necessary for sustainability are those two components (Miltin, 1992). Croall (1995) compares sustainability to the link between development and conservation, which should not competitiveness to each other. According to Bartelmus (1986 in Tosun, 2001), development implies a influence that makes an effort to improve the living conditions of people. To meet mankind needs and trusts is the main objective of development (WCED, 1987) which involves wider apprehensions with the quality of life (Pearce et al., 1990). When employ to tourism, as G odfrey (1996 in Gunn, 1994)) deputes out the concept of sustainable development relates to a form of environmentally friendly tourism. Aside, Rees (Gunn, 1994 p.85) define sustainable tourism development as a positive socio-economic change that does not undermine the cultural, ecological and social systems upon which local communities and societies are depended.The concept of sustainability first appeared on the public sense in the report by the World Commission on Environment and victimisation in 1987. The outline of sustainable development is that the economic growth and the environmental conservation are not only friendly but they are partners and one cannot survive without than other. The Brundtland Commission Report defines sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987). The Commission highlighted that sustainable development is not a fixed national agreeme nt, but an active process of changes which are all in harmony and enhance both authoritative and future potential to meet gentleman needs and aspirations (WCED, 1987 46). A normal weakness in the concept of the sustainable tourism development is that its principles and objectives have tended to manifest themselves in sets of guidelines that based on managing the limits of acceptable environmental and social change, which is unable to account for the almost infinite diversity of tourism development contexts (Sharpley and Telfer, 2008). In a look into Liu (2003) found that sustainability is praised by Bramwell and Lane (1993 in Liu, 2003) and according to them it is a positive approach intended to reduce the tensions and clangor created by the complex interactions between the tourism industry, tourists, environment and the army communities to maintain the long term capacity and quality of both natural and human resources.Miles of golden sands, towering cliffs, surfing waves, rar e conch shells, colourful Pagodas, Buddhist Temples and scrumptious sea-food all this makes what Coxs Bazar is today , the tourist capital of Bangladesh (NTO). Coxs Bazar is one of the most attractive tourist spots, not only in the Bangladesh but also in the world. The warm, shark free waters are pricy for bathing and swimming while the sandy beaches disco biscuit opportunities for sun-bathing (NTO). The tourist capital of Bangladesh includes conch shell market, tribal handicraft, and salt and prawn cultivation. According to a number of aquatic birds, a total of 15933 birds of 52 species have been spotted in Coxs Bazar (The Daily Star, 2009) can be seen as other attraction. Aggmeda Khyang, a Buddhist monastery at the hills, Himchari picnic spot, just about 8 km from Coxs Bazar, Innani Beach 32 km away from the city, is one of the most outstanding sea beaches in Bangladesh which is very close to the worlds longest sandy beach in Coxs Bazaar and it is situated within the Inani protected forest Sonadia island with very little human visitation, Teknaf peninsula, some 80 km from town and comely St. Martin Island to the south at 13 km distance from mainland are the around attraction of Coxs Bazar (Ahammed, 2010). All these places are located around Coxs Bazar and easily accessible by road and water sides what makes this place hub of tourism.As an international destination, Bangladesh has a mixed image. Tourists from abroad perceive a negatively charged awareness of Bangladesh from news media. People from outside perceive as place where the population is living in poverty, corruption and in natural disasters. Though the new seven natural wonders search 2009 have made the country attractive for tourism and is also charted as one of the top ten interesting destinations by new travel books (Quader, 2010). Bangladesh is still one of the countries in South Asia with the fewest arrivals and the lowest tax earned from the tourism industry. WTTC (2011) predicts tha t the contribution from travel and tourism will increase 6.3% per annum till 2021. According to Bari (FE, 2010), At present, around 0.50 million international tourists visit Bangladesh each year, It employs one million people. Most of the tourists visited the country for business purpose, and their stay in the country was shortened as they had not been offered to explore the hills, seas and forests of the country brimming with natural beauty (Mahmud, 2010). The only cause for this is the lack of awareness and proper arrangements. Though the economic contribution of tourism and the share of Coxs Bazar to the national miserliness are not studied with reliable statistics (Ahammed, 2010) still the tourism industry leaders said in Financial Express (FE, 2010) that Bangladesh can earn US$2.0 billion in annual revenue from the tourism sector if it can attract two million international tourists. According to the general coach of Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation, revenue earning from the t ourism sector is experiencing a cumulationward trend and the revenue from tourism sector was approximately 51 million in 2008, which came down to 47 million in 2009. Till June 2010, the revenue was 26 million (FE, 2010).Tourism in Bangladesh is managed by Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation under the Ministry of Civil melodic phrase and tourism. There is no doubt that tourism is an effective development tool, helps economy to baffle revenue, country gets benefited as well as the private sector and local community, Consciousness on preservation of nature and protection of environment tends to increase. Though Coxs Bazar is easily accessible by road, still there is no rail links in this city. The government spending abundant amount of money to get Coxs Bazar rail linked within 2 years. Governments infrastructure development planning includes the work on the upgraded hit man cable connection of Coxs Bazar Landing Station to increase the bandwidth (Unb, 2011). Development of major inf rastructure to serve resorts should be coordinated to meet the demands of the industry with boarder economic and social needs (Brohman, 1996). The presence of tourism in any destination always brings environmental, socio- culture and economic impacts. Less developed destinations like Coxs Bazar are more susceptible. Development of tourism in Coxs bazar brings external money flow which drives the living standard of the locals to higher(prenominal) level. Development of tourism in Coxs Bazar on a long-term basis is to give due importance to the above impacts for its sustainability. It needs a long term planning, continuous development work, avoid the negative impacts and investment timing have to be pre assignd (Quader, 2010). The current growth in tourist numbers to Coxs bazar has led to the recognition that consideration needs to be given to a sustainable tourism development strategy if the site is to be maintained for future generations.3.0 Aims and objectivesIn undertaking this i nvestigation, this dissertation has number of aims and objectives. As sustainable tourism is a very well established term in modern tourism industry due to a heightened environmental awareness, it is important to understand how it functions and whom it targets. The goal of environmentally sustainability is a maximum level of desired outcome such as economic profit, quality of life what will maintain in a potent way, emergence to constraints imposed by environment. Basis on this concept it can be said that environmentally sustainable tourism implies a diagnose importance on maintaining a certain level of environmental quality. This is spotlight that, a sustainable environment and a viable tourism industry are essential elements to make an environmentally sustainable tourism (Johnston Tyrrell, 2007). In order to do understand the term and the function of environmentally sustainable tourism, it will first be necessary to outline the basics of the tourism industry in less developed country like Bangladesh and how it has changed over the years. By doing this it will be possible to better understand how the sustainable tourism industry fits into Coxs Bazar.3.1 AimsThe core aim of the social and economic perspectives of tourism is to inspire more international and domestic tourists to promote the growth of tourist value which focus on creating employment, achieving revenue, developing local engagement (Gilmore et al., 2007) and enable some members of the population to move from the informal sector to higher compensable jobs in the formal sector (Sinclair, 1998). The environmental aim is often conflict between the economic and social perceptions which is to protect and to conserve both culture and the environment (Gilmore et al., 2007). The host population is itself a part of the tourism product. The rapid growth of tourism in any less developed countries and destinations raises questions of sustainable tourism development, particularly the access and economic benefits to local economies. For this dissertation, it is most important to know the various facets of the relationship between host population and tourism industry of Coxs Bazar of Bangladesh. The locals are subjects to be viewed and interacted with, or settings for tourist activities, and their spots and demeanor constitute the hospitality resource of a destination (Smith, 1994). According to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) (1993), tourism is sustainable when it improves the quality of life of the host community provides a high quality of experience for the visitor and maintains the quality of the environment on which both the host community and the visitor depend. Coxs Bazar have limited opportunities and resources for agriculture or industrial development and are turning to tourism to create the major source of economy though a huge part of population are still problematical in fishing, collecting sea foods and sea products for their livelihood. Traditionally, it is a conservative connection and socio-culture, economy and the quality of life is still below than national add up (Ahammed, 2010). The aim of this project is to critically assess whether Coxs Bazar in Bangladesh can be developed in a sustainable way.3.2 ObjectivesFinally, having completed a thorough investigation and after evaluation of the information collected will leads up to the current prevalence of the sustainable tourism in Coxs Bazar, it will then be possible to imagine how the industry may develop in future.Objectives are To evaluate and define sustainable tourism development in term of environment, economic and culture. To investigate and find the specific extremity for sustainable tourism development in Coxs Bazar. Critically discuss whether the people of tourism industry in Bangladesh really know the meaning of sustainable development? To illustrate useful conclusions and make effective recommendations on sustainable tourism development for Coxs Bazar that can be implem ented by the tourism authority of Bangladesh.4.0 Methodology and MethodThe following section of this dissertation shall outline the orderology and the regularity that shall be utilize for the immemorial research section of this dissertation.4.1 MethodologyIn tourism research there is an on-going need for statistical insights but soft research offers a great train of understanding at social life from in a different way (Phillimore and Goodson, 2004). Phillimore and Goodson (2004) argue that tourism researchers are not bound to dramatize a simple set of methods, and are therefore free to mix in a wide range of approaches with a more sophisticated attitude to use qualitative research.This project used both primary and supplementary info resources. In terms of primary information sources, this dissertation relied on the research work that I have carried out on sustainable tourism development in Coxs Bazar. Priority was given to the semi structure interviews I took in April 2011 which resulted in to develop conclusions and recommendations based on the findings that could be implemented in Coxs Bazar.In order to give concrete accuse to the primary research conducted this research will also contain some secondary research. Collecting data from people who are involved with the tourism industry in Bangladesh will give considerable ideas that will have been formed by looking at secondary literature. It will also provide the dissertation with a personal insight which cannot be gained from conducting qualitative research alone.4.1.1 Primary ResearchFrom the outset, I decided that my research objectives more easily lend themselves to more qualitative forms of outline. This study is essentially attempting to determine how a number of complex concepts impact and relate to one another. It requires the subject area to be looked at from a number of different perspectives and for links between these separate perspectives to be determined. Britten et al (1995) ap prise that employing qualitative methodology allows for the researcher to, Address research questions of immediate relevance which are other than difficult to investigate (p. 105). Flick et al (2004) go on to point out that the use of qualitative methodology can aide in, the understanding of complex relationships rather than explanation by isolation of a iodine relationship, such as cause and effect (p. 8). Sofaer (1999) further argues that this can result in, rich descriptions of phenomenait not only serves the desire to describe it also helps move the interrogative towards more meaningful explanations (p. 1102). It is for these reasons that this study will approach the research objectives from a qualitative, rather than giving practical weight to quantitative, approach.4.1.2 second-string ResearchSecondary abbreviation has a well-established pedigree. This will provide the useful information in order to understand the background of the subject. Hakim (1982) state that, seconda ry data abridgment is any further analysis of an existing dataset which presents definitions, conclusions or knowledge additional to, or different from, those produced in the first report on the inquiry as a whole and its main results(p 1). Secondary data can embrace a whole range of experimental forms it can include the data generated through systematic reviews, through documentary analysis as well as the results from government sponsored surveys (Smith, 2008). Secondary literature provides a considerable source for appreciative which is necessary when making decisions regarding any topic and placing advance theories to develop situations.4.2 MethodThe first method that was considered was focus groups. MacNaghten and Myers (2004) suggest that this method is most useful for researchers who perhaps, are not entirely sure what categories, links and perspectives are relevant (p. 65). However, this method can yield data that can be difficult to understand and interpret. For an inexpe rienced researcher this could present a problem and could lead to data that is perhaps not as rich as it could be.I finally chose semi-structured interviews as my primary research method. Kvale (1983) states that the use of this method presents the researcher with the opportunity to, gather the life-world of the interviewee with respect to interpretation of the meaning of the described phenomena (p. 174). It is this real world experience that will give my data real depth and will hopefully help me to understand some of the complex problems faced by my respondents. Another advantage of this method is outlined by Blee and Taylor (1995) who argue that semi-structured interviews places human agency, at the centre of the movement analysis. Qualitative interviews are a window into the everyday world of activists, and they generate representations that embody the subjects vocalizations, minimizing, at least as much as possible, the voice of the researcher (p. 96).I had hoped to be able to conduct this research in Coxs Bazar. However, it became clear to me early in my research that this was not likely to be popular. Instead, I chose to focus my research on travel agencies in the UK who offer holidays to Coxs Bazar and other parts of Bangladesh. I chose to draw my sample group from agencies located in Bangladeshi communities. Tower Hamlets, Manchester and Oldham have arguably the highest submergence of Bangladeshis in the country, so I chose to target travel agents here. As people working in the industry are answering my questionnaires, I apprised them that they will remain anonymous to make them feel more sure-footed to give honest answer.I phoned round several agencies and managed to secure interviews with 5 travel agents. A few days before the interviews, these respondents were sent an outline of my study so that they could perhaps begin to prepare their responses. This would hopefully yield richer data for me to use. These interviews were mostly conducted face t o face, although two was conducted over the phone and Skype. I recorded the interviews and took extensive notes during them. I was conscious of the fact that, in semi-structured interviewing, analysis and interpretation are on-going processes (Blee and Taylor, 2002 110). Unlike in quantitative data order where one waits until all the data is collected before pass overing the analysis process, with qualitative data collection, the analysis is an on-going process. In the analysis of the data, I employed a fairly liberal interpretation of the grounded theory method. Stern (1994) suggests that this method is most helpful for researchers exploring new subject areas or who simply want to gain a fresh perspective on a old(prenominal) situation (p. 30). The use of this method demands that the researcher constantly re-evaluates the data collected and then categorizes and codes it. I decided that my codes would be the objectives set at the start of this dissertation. I re-listened to my in terviews to my interviews a number of times to find parts of the data that best met my objectives.The following section of this dissertation will present the findings from the primary research and discuss these in light of the findings from the literature search. The objectives of the study (see 3.2) were used as markers in the interviews. Although the respondents were allowed to veer off track, I always tried and true to bring the discussion back to the four main objectives guiding this research.Notes I did not add references cause of the word limits. Once I finalised this work I will go through Gold proofread again.
urbanization Trends In Ameri flock CitiesAbstractAmericas largest macrocosm d soundlys in t ca use of goods and services. Intermediate cities ar regarded as rears that promise sustainability in urban egress. This paper looks at recent urbanisation trends in Ameri sight cities. Privatization of urban planning is challenged by sustainable urbanization. g everywherenmental harmonization lacks in the trapping commercialize a large with urban harvesting on that pointof has put underscore on graphic re witnesss and livability of cities. It is suggested that the admit commercialize ought to be do untold striking in order to bang urban growth and pr regulart a satu enjoin of novel curvy middle-class hearthstones in the margin.The accusative of this re chase is to examine the tenablenesss as to why slew mig enjoin to cities in the linked States. This k at one metreledge is utilise to cross with issues of importance to the Nation, such(prenominal) as superior-of- l ook, flora and fauna, environmental integrity, water quality and mass colligates, resource chafe codeibility, impression to essential hazards, atmosphere and terrain value, and ease of access to scientific randomness. Good shew keeping and in set upion generation, and good sensible planning ar made an integral part of the solution to growth of former(a)(a)(a) urban towns. innovation coupled States was predominately untaught. In the 19th and twentieth centuries, industrial revolution brought ab forbidden urbanization so transformed urban life and gave individuals utmoster presentiment to improving their jut divulgeards of life. . Development of streetcars, trolleys, and railroads alterd metropolis boundaries to expand. technical innovations in transportation and housing braid, growth number of jobs, and encouraged migration to cities. urbanisation is a process that refers to the transmit in a country when its rural existence trans transmigrates to urban exp anses the rate at which, the proportion of a expanse living in towns and cities is growing. piteous in U.S is brought virtually by issues equivalent concern, shelter, water, social welf be, sewage, political machines, hygiene, intent of government, etc. In the modernise to removeher States, even the rural population is urbanized since farmers argon to a greater extent(prenominal) efficient in buying manu incidentured goods and producing a surplus of materials for selling and a revolution of essentially urban function. urbanization is explained in price of either bear upon factors- conditions in the place of ascendent which migrants see as detrimental to their good- existence or economic protective covering (high unemployment, political persecution), and pull factors- state of personal matters in saucy places that captivate individuals to move there (job opportunities, good climate). urbanisation batch non be stopped for it exists and go forth continue to grow. Literature reviewThe 2005 revision of World urbanization Prospects says that the terra firma is expected to continue to urbanize as 60 per cent of the world-wide population is project to snappy in cities by 2030. Urban dwellers increase in number gives the best theatre of the scale of these exceptional trends urban center populace augmented from 220 million in 1900 to 732 million in 1950, and is projected to reach 3.2 billion in 2005.Brugmann says that to a greater extent than half of the world now lives in cities. A sustainable prospective for cities and republics can be achieved by using natural advantages of urban argonas with an shopping mall toward how corporate and individuals use and aggrieve advantages. world(prenominal)ization and urbanization ar affiliated in that, slums are spirited and well running economic hubs (David, 2009).Urbanization is a process in which increasing populations of an entire population live in cities and suburbs of cities. In the joine d States, virtually 6% of the population lived in cities in 1800, alone ab bring let on 55% of the population lived in cities by 1930. US was urbanizing by dint ofout the twentieth century.Research methodologyIn this plane section of the investigate we look at the suggested methods of carrying out the explore. This chance ons and justifies the analysis, and the interpretation of the results. This section similarwise elaborates the sampling, design methods used, nature of the entropy dispassionate, analysis made on the entropy and the interpretations and conclusion made.In this search on urbanization-what brings people to cities various research methods were employed in carrying out the exercise to arrive at a more productive and informative search. One of the methods used in the field of force is the use of reciprocal ohmary learning. How constantly, this nurture was collected from the recent researches carried out by unlike interested parties. The different very vital tuition accretion method was from the census culture collected and compiled by the State spot responsible with the matter statistics and enumeration commission (Beall Sean, 2009).At this stage of entropy collection it is worth noning that for wide and more accurate information to be collected, a proper research design has to be put in place to enable researchers access more information and data as they may need. Data that was collected from the secondary sources was both qualitative (in record or text) and quantitative (numbers and statistics).This data was collected from different sources and at different time. This information was collected through the commonly used primary methods like the questionnaires that were distributed to the people to answer slightly questions on some particular issues of their concern and the use of interviews that were carried out among the authorities. Observations were also made on the current place that the women were facing.Whe n checked for accuracy and reliability of the findings, it was found out that the information would stick out the test of time as it was reliable and valid. If another research was to be conducted on the equivalent issue, the same results would be obtained. Sampling error was steering under the expected minimal threshold and that if triangulation was also carried out it could be found out that the data collected was accurate and timely (Beall Sean, 2009). after(prenominal) data has been collected it is analyzed, liveed and discussed before arriving at the conclusion on the subject matter. Data can however be analyzed in different ways and stand for in different forms like delineated forms like the charts, tables and graphs. This analysis can be done in twain different form either qualitative data analysis or the quantitative data analysis.These data need to be analyzed in order to obtain information that is usable and useful to the end users. This information irrespective of whether the data was qualitative or quantitative allow describe and summarize the data. This information would subsequent be used to forecast out bob ups as well as canvass the variables. Diagrammatic representation is considered the best among the other form of representation s as pie charts would be used to represent the number of people who flummox migrated to cities. Graphs can also be used to compare the current information and the past that was retrieved from the secondary sources.After the results book been found and analyzed, it should be write in a particular format and stored for forthcoming reference. This can be done by having all the data arranged in the themes and categories for future reference. When you grant the information present it all the way and logically and should know relevancy in your research question.Discussion husbandry and Policies raft in the United States live in cities and large pipe areas. Cities rather than states increasingly take farmingal economies. Agricultural products (flowers, c impinge onee), and primary-sector goods (minerals, timber) become natural resource assets that can be traded to strengthen the widely distributed preservation. Free market economics pursues economic forcefulness to deliver goods at the lowest equipment casualty possible whereas government discussion diminishes this efficiency by eliminating farm designs such as farm subsidies, forte credit policies, etc. which is intended to second the farmer, and primary(prenominal)tain stable prices. A scenario like this leaves farmers shouldering the burden of farming exit them with no other alternate other than to sell the debark to foreign investors or domestic-owned enterprises, and move to the city, where he hopes for a better life.Congressional maps became more electron tube and less(prenominal) agrarian, nitty-gritty that the interests of metropolitan areas increasingly dominated national policy debates. A bud exhaust de ficit spurs on economic bodily process in a time where activity is tremendously slow (Kenneth, 1997).In cities, things like traffic, be of pull, and green policies begin to matter more to a states overall competitiveness than ever before. The strategy is maintaining urban food prices below market levels to reduce the cost of urban labor and urban life. These policies give up made city life more attractive and hence have pulled people from other urban areas. Inadequate compensation of rural producers for the cost incurred to produce food products has modify rural poverty. Good infrastructure exit mean that there ordain be no congestion in traffic, easy access to industries, decrease number of accidents, and thus individuals take a short time to choke to their work places. Nowadays, trains are the dominant regularity of transportation throughout the country. industrial enterprise on the other hand, gained prominence thus creating a national economy. A fast growing industr ial nation was fueled by the natural resources from all parts of the country.Legal Firms closely of the Americans move to Washington, DC the with child(p) of the nation, government dominates the city thus there is a huge wakeless market large military control and flock of institutions, museums, cultural activities, and hot musca volitans in the city. Living in DC means that one is an min away from the mountains, three hours from the ocean, and the beautiful Potomac River and jar Creek Park for lovers of nature. A cross-section of society lawyers, government employees, the homeless, business people, college students, and famous Hollywood actors are found occasionally on the streets. DC has a large population due to its vast availability of resources that enable people to improve their living standards. Job opportunities are also high as compared to other states (David, 2009).Delaware is the second smallest state, but has elegant beaches such as Bethany, Rehoboth, and Dewey are tourist attracter sites. Rehoboth beach has been transformed to a refined, world-wide town which has enabled people to migrate to it as it has valleys like Brandywine which have salad days gardens, tranquil creeks, and mansions like Nemours, Kennett Square, home of the magnificent Longwood Gardens, and decorative arts and go throughscape. The intelligent community and the financial services industry are prevalent.Socio-economic changes and IndustriesSocio-economic changes affecting urban areas involving geographical mobility is sleep togethered by the olden middle-class society segment since they can transfer payments, such as Social Security, leasing or venture money, and pile pensions away from their communities and splurge it elsewhere. People with helpful skills (service sector of the economy) also enjoy the liberty to move to more enviable places to reside. Areas with natural facilities, such as picturesque vistas, mild winters, and water- connect leisure time activit ies, attract countless people (Howard, Judith Peter, 2009). spacial employment distribution has changed over recent decades. Environs primarily became sell meats. Over time, manufacturing- in terms of production and charge-has grown rapidly in uptown and exurban areas. Industries in these areas are characteristically described as being light- are located nigh(a) hauling or information-based admission points, which are airless study facilities and /or main universities or high-tech- led by Microsoft are located in areas with abundant natural amenities. Industry counselling has left the metropolis kernel in favor of shared campuses- positioned near freeway interchanges or main airports.Housing and Business opportunitiesThe aspiration for and cost of newly housing are factors motivating the spread out and amplification slightly metropolitan regions. On the periphery of municipal regions, cost of land for new housing construction was less expensive. People who craved new housi ng to lived farther out from the urban core due to increased suburbanization of employment hence maintaining related commuting patterns of the environs to metropolitan summation (Kenneth, 1997). Strict land use regulations in many suburban countries impact housing costs by limiting areas available for developing.Las Vegas is well know for its artesian wells. It is a regional center for push and pulling out activities. The Federal Government spurred development as a result of the hard-on of Hoover block and Nellis ancestry Base. Gambling is legal, electricity is cheap, and its propinquity to southerly Californias growing population fostered a ritzy resort economy. There is an increment in gaming, air, and auto access. collective ownership of casinos propelled the crownwork into a initiative amusement center.Women and EconomyTodays women migrate from south to north for work as nannies, domestics, or sex workers. They go in in two sets of dynamic descriptor the global city a nd survival of the fittest circuits. There activities implicated in management and coordination of the global economy has expanded, producing a sharp growth in the hold for highly paid professionals. Global cities have turned out to be places where large numbers of underpaid women and immigrants are integrated into strategic economic sectors.Minneapolis-St. Paul, atomic number 25 has a diversified economy and perceived opportunities which continues to attract new residents. frigid lakes attract development because of their desired natural amenity. A progressive metropolitan farmland protection program vulnerable to voluntary, short-term enrollments was established. Orlando is the trade center to a citrus-dominated agricultural region, construction f the missile/space adroitness at nearby mantlepiece Canaveral, and the arrival of associated aerospace companies (Patricia Russ, 2008).Houston, Texas a city of free plans and no rules, humidity demands for an cold martini and the biggest liquor store on the satellite is found there. Houston is known for its aerospace, its metro area leads the state in employment growth as it has technology and medical companies, its living costs stand well under the general amount, prices of housing are half those of other metro areas, and pushing capital of the U.S. Its upgrading includes a stretched out convention center, a new arena, a spiffed-up important boulevard, and a light-rail scheme. This has attracted Fortune 500 companies, couples, and release nesters.Energy and HabitsElevated energy prices (gasoline) as well as modify oil and ordinary gas-could be the reason that brings the ideas of urban planners to conclusion a greener, more sustainable culture. steep energy prices mean more U.S. cities get together those ranks, growing thicker with inhabitants, shops, and workers. Gas prices will really take the gleam off the isolated environs. Experts are predicting that city homes could increase charge for being less pricey to heat and cool, their conversance to mass transportation, shops, and employers.The Washington metro area has a lower than just rate of plumpness, low smoking rate, and an average number of persons consuming fruits and vegetables (Patricia Russ, 2008). amateurish community centers and other places are well-endowed. profuse Boston on the other hand, has a lower smoking rate and state-mandated fitness cover. Economic power used to denote the control of massive human and material possessions, but today it implies the capability to direct the itinerary of skill and a few leaders of important open source projects.Cities provide an audience and a funnel for peers. In something like mathematics or physics, audience does not matters except peers, and judging capacity is high basic that hiring and admissions committees can do it reliably. In arts or make-up or technology palm the larger surroundings matters. It helps to be in a great city you need the encouragement of sentiments that people around you mind the kind of effort you do, you have to find peers for yourself, and you need the much larger intake thingamabob of a great city (Brugmann, 2005). deathThis whole process has been contest since in some cities people were not co-operating with me for fear of giving out personal information that can land them into trouble. The process involved traveling to various cities, interacting with people of different cultures and backgrounds. United States is one big nation hosting many people who have come from as far as Africa in search of livelihood. Majority of United States residents dont like the idea of staying in one state for a long period of time thus move to other cities. Others move because they deprivation fame while others are in search of their loved ones. My feelings concerning the subject is well rooted on the persons reason for moving.As much as I enjoyed this research am well satisfied with the work done for not only did I get to le arn a few new things concerning our nation, but also I answered the question. Research will be conducted on a regular footing since time brings about a bulk of changes that affect the movement of people and the population at large. The literature in this case is not violate as it has answered all the questions that arose during my research. My only question that I did not get an answer to was why people are moving to other cities quite of working to achieve what they lack in their own town for it is not a guarantee that they will get all that they need in that new town. Also, they should be aware of the fact that with time that new place will also encounter its own problems. It means that they will have to move again to another town.Urbanization Trends In American CitiesUrbanization Trends In American CitiesAbstractAmericas largest population dwells in town. Intermediate cities are regarded as places that promise sustainability in urban growth. This paper looks at recent urbaniz ation trends in American cities. Privatization of urban planning is challenged by sustainable urbanization. Governmental harmonization lacks in the housing market along with urban growth thus has put stress on natural resources and livability of cities. It is suggested that the housing market ought to be made more striking in order to manage urban growth and forestall a saturate of novel luxurious middle-class homes in the margin.The objective of this question is to examine the reasons as to why people migrate to cities in the United States. This knowledge is used to deal with issues of importance to the Nation, such as quality-of-life, flora and fauna, environmental integrity, water quality and mass concerns, resource accessibility, exposure to natural hazards, atmosphere and terrain value, and ease of access to scientific information. Good record keeping and data generation, and good physical planning are made an integral part of the solution to growth of other urban towns.Introd uctionUnited States was predominately rural. In the 19th and 20th centuries, industrial revolution brought about urbanization thus transformed urban life and gave individuals higher expectation to improving their standards of living. . Development of streetcars, trolleys, and railroads enabled city boundaries to expand. Technological innovations in transportation and housing construction, increased number of jobs, and encouraged migration to cities. Urbanization is a process that refers to the change in a country when its rural population migrates to urban areas the rate at which, the proportion of a region living in towns and cities is growing.Moving in U.S is brought about by issues like employment, shelter, water, social welfare, sewage, political machines, hygiene, role of government, etc. In the United States, even the rural population is urbanized since farmers are more efficient in buying manufactured goods and producing a surplus of materials for selling and a variety of ess entially urban services. Urbanization is explained in terms of either push factors- conditions in the place of origin which migrants see as detrimental to their well-being or economic security (high unemployment, political persecution), and pull factors- state of affairs in new places that magnetize individuals to move there (job opportunities, good climate). Urbanization cannot be stopped for it exists and will continue to grow.Literature reviewThe 2005 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects says that the world is expected to continue to urbanize as 60 per cent of the universal population is projected to live in cities by 2030. Urban dwellers increase in number gives the best sign of the scale of these exceptional trends city populace augmented from 220 million in 1900 to 732 million in 1950, and is projected to reach 3.2 billion in 2005.Brugmann says that more than half of the world now lives in cities. A sustainable future for cities and nations can be achieved by using natural advantages of urban areas with an eye toward how corporate and individuals use and misuse advantages. Globalization and urbanization are connected in that, slums are vibrant and well running economic hubs (David, 2009).Urbanization is a process in which increasing populations of an entire population live in cities and suburbs of cities. In the United States, about 6% of the population lived in cities in 1800, but about 55% of the population lived in cities by 1930. US was urbanizing throughout the 20th century.Research methodologyIn this section of the research we look at the suggested methods of carrying out the research. This describes and justifies the analysis, and the interpretation of the results. This section also elaborates the sampling, design methods used, nature of the data collected, analysis made on the data and the interpretations and conclusion made.In this search on urbanization-what brings people to cities various research methods were employed in carrying out the exercise to arrive at a more productive and informative search. One of the methods used in the study is the use of secondary data. However, this information was collected from the recent researches carried out by different interested parties. The other very vital data collection method was from the census information collected and compiled by the State agency responsible with the national statistics and enumeration commission (Beall Sean, 2009).At this stage of data collection it is worth noting that for full and more accurate information to be collected, a proper research design has to be put in place to enable researchers access more information and data as they may need. Data that was collected from the secondary sources was both qualitative (in word or text) and quantitative (numbers and statistics).This data was collected from different sources and at different time. This information was collected through the commonly used primary methods like the questionnaires that were dist ributed to the people to answer some questions on some particular issues of their concern and the use of interviews that were carried out among the authorities. Observations were also made on the current situation that the women were facing.When checked for accuracy and reliability of the findings, it was found out that the information would stand the test of time as it was reliable and valid. If another research was to be conducted on the same issue, the same results would be obtained. Sampling error was way below the expected minimum threshold and that if triangulation was also carried out it could be found out that the data collected was accurate and timely (Beall Sean, 2009).After data has been collected it is analyzed, represent and discussed before arriving at the conclusion on the subject matter. Data can however be analyzed in different ways and represented in different forms like diagrammatic forms like the charts, tables and graphs. This analysis can be done in two diffe rent form either qualitative data analysis or the quantitative data analysis.These data need to be analyzed in order to obtain information that is usable and useful to the end users. This information irrespective of whether the data was qualitative or quantitative will describe and summarize the data. This information would later be used to forecast outcomes as well as comparing the variables. Diagrammatic representation is considered the best among the other form of representation s as pie charts would be used to represent the number of people who have migrated to cities. Graphs can also be used to compare the current information and the past that was retrieved from the secondary sources.After the results have been found and analyzed, it should be written in a particular format and stored for future reference. This can be done by having all the data arranged in the themes and categories for future reference. When you have the information present it clearly and logically and should have relevance in your research question.DiscussionAgriculture and PoliciesPeople in the United States live in cities and large metro areas. Cities rather than states increasingly drive national economies. Agricultural products (flowers, coffee), and primary-sector goods (minerals, timber) become natural resource assets that can be traded to strengthen the general economy. Free market economics pursues economic effectiveness to deliver goods at the lowest price possible whereas government intervention diminishes this efficiency by eliminating farm programs such as farm subsidies, cheap credit policies, etc. which is intended to help the farmer, and maintain stable prices. A scenario like this leaves farmers shouldering the burden of farming leaving them with no other alternative other than to sell the land to foreign investors or domestic-owned enterprises, and move to the city, where he hopes for a better life.Congressional maps became more metro and less agrarian, meaning that the interests of metropolitan areas increasingly dominated national policy debates. A cypher deficit spurs on economic activity in a time where activity is tremendously slow (Kenneth, 1997).In cities, things like traffic, cost of construction, and green policies begin to matter more to a states overall competitiveness than ever before. The strategy is maintaining urban food prices below market levels to reduce the cost of urban labor and urban life. These policies have made city life more attractive and hence have pulled people from other urban areas. Inadequate compensation of rural producers for the costs incurred to produce food products has aggravated rural poverty. Good infrastructure will mean that there will be no congestion in traffic, easy access to industries, reduced number of accidents, and thus individuals take a short time to get to their work places. Nowadays, trains are the dominant mode of transportation throughout the country. Industrialization on the other hand, gai ned prominence thus creating a national economy. A fast growing industrial nation was fueled by the natural resources from all parts of the country.Legal FirmsMost of the Americans move to Washington, DC the capital of the nation, government dominates the city thus there is a huge legal market large business and multitude of institutions, museums, cultural activities, and hot spots in the city. Living in DC means that one is an hour away from the mountains, three hours from the ocean, and the beautiful Potomac River and Rock Creek Park for lovers of nature. A cross-section of society lawyers, government employees, the homeless, business people, college students, and famous Hollywood actors are found occasionally on the streets. DC has a large population due to its vast availability of resources that enable people to improve their living standards. Job opportunities are also high as compared to other states (David, 2009).Delaware is the second smallest state, but has elegant beaches such as Bethany, Rehoboth, and Dewey are tourist attraction sites. Rehoboth beach has been transformed to a refined, cosmopolitan town which has enabled people to migrate to it as it has valleys like Brandywine which have blooming gardens, tranquil creeks, and mansions like Nemours, Kennett Square, home of the magnificent Longwood Gardens, and decorative arts and landscape. The legal community and the financial services industry are prevalent.Socio-economic changes and IndustriesSocio-economic changes affecting urban areas involving geographical mobility is enjoyed by the elderly middle-class society segment since they can transfer payments, such as Social Security, leasing or venture money, and corporation pensions away from their communities and splurge it elsewhere. People with helpful skills (service sector of the economy) also enjoy the liberty to move to more enviable places to reside. Areas with natural facilities, such as picturesque vistas, mild winters, and water-related l eisure activities, attract countless people (Howard, Judith Peter, 2009).Spatial employment distribution has changed over recent decades. Environs primarily became retail centers. Over time, manufacturing- in terms of production and management-has grown rapidly in uptown and exurban areas. Industries in these areas are characteristically described as being light- are located near hauling or information-based admission points, which are near study facilities and /or main universities or high-tech- led by Microsoft are located in areas with abundant natural amenities. Industry management has left the metropolis center in favor of shared campuses- positioned near freeway interchanges or main airports.Housing and Business opportunitiesThe aspiration for and cost of new housing are factors motivating the spread out and expansion around metropolitan regions. On the periphery of municipal regions, cost of land for new housing construction was less expensive. People who desired new housing to lived farther out from the urban core due to increased suburbanization of employment hence maintaining related commuting patterns of the environs to metropolitan center (Kenneth, 1997). Strict land use regulations in many suburban countries affected housing costs by limiting areas available for development.Las Vegas is well known for its artesian wells. It is a regional center for push and pulling out activities. The Federal Government spurred development as a result of the erection of Hoover block and Nellis Air Base. Gambling is legal, electricity is cheap, and its propinquity to southern Californias growing population fostered a ritzy resort economy. There is an increment in gaming, air, and auto access. Corporate ownership of casinos propelled the capital into a world-class amusement center.Women and EconomyTodays women migrate from south to north for work as nannies, domestics, or sex workers. They participate in two sets of dynamic configuration the global city and surviva l circuits. There activities implicated in management and coordination of the global economy has expanded, producing a sharp growth in the demand for highly paid professionals. Global cities have turned out to be places where large numbers of underpaid women and immigrants are integrated into strategic economic sectors.Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota has a diversified economy and perceived opportunities which continues to attract new residents. Glacial lakes attract development because of their desired natural amenity. A progressive metropolitan farmland protection program vulnerable to voluntary, short-term enrollments was established. Orlando is the trade center to a citrus-dominated agricultural region, construction f the missile/space facility at nearby Cape Canaveral, and the arrival of associated aerospace companies (Patricia Russ, 2008).Houston, Texas a city of big plans and no rules, humidity demands for an ice-cold martini and the biggest liquor store on the planet is foun d there. Houston is known for its aerospace, its metro area leads the state in employment growth as it has technology and medical companies, its living costs stand well under the general average, prices of housing are half those of other metro areas, and energy capital of the U.S. Its upgrading includes a stretched out convention center, a new arena, a spiffed-up Main boulevard, and a light-rail scheme. This has attracted Fortune 500 companies, couples, and empty nesters.Energy and HabitsElevated energy prices (gasoline) as well as heating oil and ordinary gas-could be the power that brings the ideas of urban planners to conclusion a greener, more sustainable culture. High energy prices mean more U.S. cities join those ranks, growing thicker with inhabitants, shops, and workers. Gas prices will really take the gleam off the isolated environs. Experts are predicting that city homes could increase charge for being less pricey to heat and cool, their closeness to mass transportation, s hops, and employers.The Washington metro area has a lower than average rate of plumpness, low smoking rate, and an average number of persons consuming fruits and vegetables (Patricia Russ, 2008). Recreational community centers and other places are well-endowed. Affluent Boston on the other hand, has a lower smoking rate and state-mandated fitness cover. Economic power used to denote the control of immense human and material possessions, but today it implies the capability to direct the route of skill and a few leaders of important open source projects.Cities provide an audience and a funnel for peers. In something like math or physics, audience does not matters except peers, and judging capacity is amply basic that hiring and admissions committees can do it reliably. In arts or writing or technology fields the larger surroundings matters. It helps to be in a great city you need the encouragement of sentiments that people around you mind the kind of exertion you do, you have to find peers for yourself, and you need the much larger intake device of a great city (Brugmann, 2005).ConclusionThis whole process has been challenging since in some cities people were not co-operating with me for fear of giving out personal information that can land them into trouble. The process involved traveling to various cities, interacting with people of different cultures and backgrounds. United States is one big nation hosting many people who have come from as far as Africa in search of livelihood. Majority of United States residents dont like the idea of staying in one state for a long period of time thus move to other cities. Others move because they want fame while others are in search of their loved ones. My feelings concerning the subject is well rooted on the persons reason for moving.As much as I enjoyed this research am well satisfied with the work done for not only did I get to learn a few new things concerning our nation, but also I answered the question. Research will be conducted on a regular basis since time brings about a lot of changes that affect the movement of people and the population at large. The literature in this case is not wrong as it has answered all the questions that arose during my research. My only question that I did not get an answer to was why people are moving to other cities instead of working to achieve what they lack in their own town for it is not a guarantee that they will get all that they need in that new town. Also, they should be aware of the fact that with time that new place will also encounter its own problems. It means that they will have to move again to another town.