Friday, March 29, 2019
The Tourism Industry In Bangladesh
The Tourism Industry In BangladeshThe phaetonry manufacturing is a major(ip) contri thator to the gross state product of more than than countries (Reige and Perry, 2000) and in the shoemakers last 50 years, tourerry has veritable into unrivalled of the worlds most powerful, yet provocative, socio- frugal forces (Sharpley and telpher 2008). sound Tourism perseverance has become nonp aril of the worlds most authoritative and fastest growing sparing sphere of influences, generating tincture jobs and substantial wealth for economies slightly the globe (WTTC, 2007). The recent global recession has not ca employ the touristry diligence to grind to a complete halt, and the cosmea Tourism Barometer indicated that the recession solitary(prenominal) cause a 4% decline in global touristry from 2008-2010 (UNWTO, 2011b) and immediately it is expected to grow again. WTTC President and CEO, David Scowsill (2011) says Over the next ecstasy years, its correspond character to GDP forget rise by 4.2% per annum to US$9.2 trillion, bringing with it 65 cardinal new jobs, but for that fruit to be possible and sustainable, g everywherenments must cultivate together with the diligence towards smarter policies and legislation that ordain at ecstasyd Travel Tourism to thrive. In triplet world countries, governments encourage touristry investing because of the assumption that it result contribute to sparing victimisation of their countries (Hall, 1995). Third world nations and sustaining nations always seeks the potential profits of tourism such as increased income, foreign ex permute, employments and economic diversification (Sharpley and Telfer, 2008). According to Ferguson (2007) The tourism assiduity directly provides some(a)what 3 per cent of global employment, or 192 one million million million jobs the equivalent to one in e rattling twelve jobs in the stately sector. As with opposite industrial sectors and fields of academic st udy, tourism has in addition developed over the decades and has been influenced by a multitude of internal and impertinent factors. It is not surprising that m all aspects of tourism are bestowly incompatible than they used to be before because of the vast rate of technological change a coherent with hearty, economic and environsal changes.Bangladesh is one of the worlds most densely inhabit countries, with its stack packed into a delta of rivers that empties into the Bay of Bengal BBC (2011). Its implementing its developing plans for a long time. They are not only trying to secure their economic growth but too trying to improve their mixer living standards. In Bangladesh, tourism was most non-existent at the kingdoms independence from Pakistan in 1971. More lately tourism has seen as a means of the contributing to their attainment. Tourism contributes 4.8 % to Bangladeshs raw Domestic Products (GDP) and employs over 1509100 which contribute 1.9% of direct employments (WTTC, 2011). According to Bhatia (1986 in Jenkins and Tosun, 1998), many countries in the third world do not know the immensity of tourism and the impacts that it female genitalia buoy guide, and Bangladesh is one of those countries. Essentially Jenkins and Tosun (1998) argue that, tourism using took post in most of the places of this world as an unplanned exercise (p 102). Like sustainable discipline sounds attractive (Butler, 1992 64), the phrase of sustainable tourism accept immediately by this land even the consequence of this bourne is not understood fully. though sustainable tourism is the in occasion across the world, Bangladesh, in spite of being in collect with natures bounties and yellowish pink, still struggles with the archetype (Mahmud, 2010). Several destinations in Bangladesh such as Chittagong hill tracts, the Sundarbans, Saint Martin precious coral island, Nijhum Island, Srimanagol Lawachera rain forest, Tangua Hoar and Coxs f distribute, which co uld be used as sustainable tourist spots (Mahmud, 2010).Coxs bazaar is the tourist capital letter of Bangladesh. By popular choice, Coxs bazar has recently been ranked as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World(Zamir, 2009), set conveniently on the east-west air-corridor making it a gateway to the Far East. It is endowed with resources and the potential for a tourism assiduity. In the southern edge of the body politic has a 125 km (77.6 miles) long bound of soft fluent sand, the worlds longest (Qadir, 2003) and a chain of hills that run parallel to the sea for almost the entire length, towering cliffs, colourful, ancient pagodas and Hindu temples (Anonymous, 2007), in a Riviera-like place setting with crescent-shaped low hills overlooking the Bay of Bengal, and most visited tourist destinations in Bangladesh. The range of the hills covered in luxurious green groves is precious locations for tourists. Coxs fair is located at the head of this terrain. Coxs Bazar is also know n as Panowa, literature meaning yellow flower. Palonkee was its other name.The daughter of the sea Bangladesh is a beautiful surprise for the tourist. Since the tourism is reported as a relatively easy way to earn foreign exchange, many countries are gauge to enter outside(a) markets as fast as they send word (Jafari, 1974) and Bangladesh is one of them. According to Jafari (1974), tourists and news media of a developed countries come to be a kind of promotional agents for a developing country or for a under developing country. though Hasan in his book discipline tourism in Bangladesh blames the international news media for re deporting a wrong appearance of the country and news media carefully avoid telling the world of the brighter side of Bangladesh than the bo soundess side of it (Khairuzzaman, 2008) still thither are some arrogant approaches from the international media. Lonely planet is one of them. The world leader in publishing conk out use ups and guidebooks Lonel y planet recommended Bangladesh as one of the top ten interesting travel destination in 2009 (Thomsen, 2009). This UK based realityation Bradt Travel guide is known as a pioneer in tackling unmatched destinations, for championing the causes of sustainable travel and for the high quality of writing (Thomsen, 2009). The first guide on Bangladesh published in 2009 and the back cover text states Bangladesh has a reputation for being poor and beset by flooding, but this republic of rivers rewards those willing to look beyond the headlines. Leave luxuries behind and embark on the deepest of travel experiences among some of the sub-continents friendliest batch (Thomsen, 2009). This kind of positive focus on Bangladesh is not possible to buy for money. Lack of consistent schema on cooperation, appropriate companionship and sustain dexterity are the great barrier to a positive organic evolution of Bangladesh tourism sector.Environmental resources are an distinguished asset not only in Coxs Bazar but to other tourism destinations in all other third world countries. The tourism in Bangladesh is peculiarly popular due to its coastal areas of Coxs Bazar. If environmental resources are important economic assets in Bangladesh, the immediate action that take is that of sustainable utilisation of resources to benefit for act and future generations (Mbaiwa, 2005). It is well established that the presence of tourism in destination always brings with it environmental, socio- ending and economic benefit and this is why it is an actionive developing ray of light in any under developing countries and in the fictional character of Bangladesh, A sustainable tourism strategy will control a major positive impact (Thomsen, 2009).When leaveing out a broad look for on any substance, it is essential to become acquainted with contextual of that discipline, by using relevant literatures. For this utterance, it is most signifi bottomt to obtain information in a number of an tithetic sources. Academic books, journals, newspapers, where available, will be used in the gathering of information for this disquisition. Here in this project, I will sketch the history of sustainable tourism development first which will provide the context of how it is developing and will answer either it exists in the Bangladesh, particularly in Coxs bazar. In order to gain this knowledge I will look at different publications related to inquiry grapple will be stash away from academic books, daily newspaper, projects, related autobiography and tremendously up to date journals. For this purpose it will be super useable to look at relevant internet websites such as the websites of different ministry of Bangladesh and tourism industry based websites. Internet websites will be an important source to fill in the gap by providing useful information where books and periodicals are not so unequivocal.2.0 Literature review altogether tourism includes some travel but not all trav el is tourism (Page, 2007). Tourism used to be recognised as an action at law undertaken by those who travelled away from home for holidays, to visit relatives or to carry out professional business, in the past. Tourism is a composite of activities, operate and industries that deliver a travel experience transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, shops entertainment, activity facilities and other hospitality services available for individuals and separates that are travelling away from home (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2009). Therefore it encompasses a wide variety of purposes. The officially accepted definition by UNWTO (1993) is Tourism comprises the activities of person travelling to and staying places outside their public environment for not more than one consecutive year for lei certain(a), businesses and other purposes. This definition challenges the commonly held perception that tourism is purely concerned with cheer and having fun (Holden, 2008). Bu t according to Gunn (1994) the best working definition of tourism is that of by Mathieson and Wall (1982 in Gunn, 1994) Tourism is the temporary driveway of plenty to destinations outsides their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their need. At the present time, tourism is even more far reaching with wider implications. Specialists have famous betwixt mass tourism, which involves those features just mentioned, and alternative tourism, which can include cultural, educational, social, environmental, coarse and political tourism (Wearing and Neil, 2009). Tourism promotes better cross culture sense. For any third world and developing countries, tourism is seen as an important tool of their regional development, culture, environmental and in most cases the tourism portfolio is attached to Economy. This provides us with an initial insight into the impact of tourism within al l countries it has.In addition to social, political and economic concerns, tourism has become a vastly important and global feature of environmental argument. Tourism development which systematically ignores environmental concerns is unlikely to remain viable in the longer landmark (Pigram, 1990). High volume of tourism can cause environmental including water, air and noise pollution which are extremely destructive to a locations sustainable well-being. It is as a significance of the growing awareness of the harmful effect that tourism has on the environment, as well as a global heightened ensureing of how global warming is affecting our planet, that tourism has been submitn an environmental focus. Indeed, sustainable tourism is now a widely known electric receptacle of tourism, with the state of the environment being given more and more consideration. The verge Sustainable Tourism has been introduced in the context of wider debate about environmental sustainability and logi cally implies a form and level of tourism which takes a total stock of natural resources (Sinclair, 1998). The growing awareness of environmental damage in this modern technological world is the reason to address this term. Getz (1986) says that when tourism prep was first developed in the 1960s, the disciplines main focus came, almost altogether from the perspective of maximizing economic growth (p. 21). Over the decades, the focus has shifted and is now, more sensitive to non-economic issues (p. 32). Murphy (1985) argues that it is the responsibility of the tourism industry to, develop and protect its attractions, whether they are natural or man-made, and become a hospitality industry to make visitor experiences as enjoyable as possible (p. 10). Though it is argued that too much emphasis is placed on relatively in short term economic impacts at the cost of considering the long term social and environmental impacts of tourism, thereby encourages in a better awareness of the pr oblems that the industry creates (Holloway et al., 2009). The importance of sustainable development is to carry growing successes into the future in such a way that future generations are not libertine (Pearce et al., 1990).Sustainability, sustainable tourism and sustainable development are all well-established call (Liu, 2003). There are two components in the definition of sustainable development. The meaning of development and the condition necessary for sustainability are those two components (Miltin, 1992). Croall (1995) compares sustainability to the link between development and conservation, which should not competitiveness to each other. According to Bartelmus (1986 in Tosun, 2001), development implies a influence that makes an effort to improve the living conditions of people. To meet mankind needs and trusts is the main objective of development (WCED, 1987) which involves wider apprehensions with the quality of life (Pearce et al., 1990). When employ to tourism, as G odfrey (1996 in Gunn, 1994)) deputes out the concept of sustainable development relates to a form of environmentally friendly tourism. Aside, Rees (Gunn, 1994 p.85) define sustainable tourism development as a positive socio-economic change that does not undermine the cultural, ecological and social systems upon which local communities and societies are depended.The concept of sustainability first appeared on the public sense in the report by the World Commission on Environment and victimisation in 1987. The outline of sustainable development is that the economic growth and the environmental conservation are not only friendly but they are partners and one cannot survive without than other. The Brundtland Commission Report defines sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987). The Commission highlighted that sustainable development is not a fixed national agreeme nt, but an active process of changes which are all in harmony and enhance both authoritative and future potential to meet gentleman needs and aspirations (WCED, 1987 46). A normal weakness in the concept of the sustainable tourism development is that its principles and objectives have tended to manifest themselves in sets of guidelines that based on managing the limits of acceptable environmental and social change, which is unable to account for the almost infinite diversity of tourism development contexts (Sharpley and Telfer, 2008). In a look into Liu (2003) found that sustainability is praised by Bramwell and Lane (1993 in Liu, 2003) and according to them it is a positive approach intended to reduce the tensions and clangor created by the complex interactions between the tourism industry, tourists, environment and the army communities to maintain the long term capacity and quality of both natural and human resources.Miles of golden sands, towering cliffs, surfing waves, rar e conch shells, colourful Pagodas, Buddhist Temples and scrumptious sea-food all this makes what Coxs Bazar is today , the tourist capital of Bangladesh (NTO). Coxs Bazar is one of the most attractive tourist spots, not only in the Bangladesh but also in the world. The warm, shark free waters are pricy for bathing and swimming while the sandy beaches disco biscuit opportunities for sun-bathing (NTO). The tourist capital of Bangladesh includes conch shell market, tribal handicraft, and salt and prawn cultivation. According to a number of aquatic birds, a total of 15933 birds of 52 species have been spotted in Coxs Bazar (The Daily Star, 2009) can be seen as other attraction. Aggmeda Khyang, a Buddhist monastery at the hills, Himchari picnic spot, just about 8 km from Coxs Bazar, Innani Beach 32 km away from the city, is one of the most outstanding sea beaches in Bangladesh which is very close to the worlds longest sandy beach in Coxs Bazaar and it is situated within the Inani protected forest Sonadia island with very little human visitation, Teknaf peninsula, some 80 km from town and comely St. Martin Island to the south at 13 km distance from mainland are the around attraction of Coxs Bazar (Ahammed, 2010). All these places are located around Coxs Bazar and easily accessible by road and water sides what makes this place hub of tourism.As an international destination, Bangladesh has a mixed image. Tourists from abroad perceive a negatively charged awareness of Bangladesh from news media. People from outside perceive as place where the population is living in poverty, corruption and in natural disasters. Though the new seven natural wonders search 2009 have made the country attractive for tourism and is also charted as one of the top ten interesting destinations by new travel books (Quader, 2010). Bangladesh is still one of the countries in South Asia with the fewest arrivals and the lowest tax earned from the tourism industry. WTTC (2011) predicts tha t the contribution from travel and tourism will increase 6.3% per annum till 2021. According to Bari (FE, 2010), At present, around 0.50 million international tourists visit Bangladesh each year, It employs one million people. Most of the tourists visited the country for business purpose, and their stay in the country was shortened as they had not been offered to explore the hills, seas and forests of the country brimming with natural beauty (Mahmud, 2010). The only cause for this is the lack of awareness and proper arrangements. Though the economic contribution of tourism and the share of Coxs Bazar to the national miserliness are not studied with reliable statistics (Ahammed, 2010) still the tourism industry leaders said in Financial Express (FE, 2010) that Bangladesh can earn US$2.0 billion in annual revenue from the tourism sector if it can attract two million international tourists. According to the general coach of Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation, revenue earning from the t ourism sector is experiencing a cumulationward trend and the revenue from tourism sector was approximately 51 million in 2008, which came down to 47 million in 2009. Till June 2010, the revenue was 26 million (FE, 2010).Tourism in Bangladesh is managed by Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation under the Ministry of Civil melodic phrase and tourism. There is no doubt that tourism is an effective development tool, helps economy to baffle revenue, country gets benefited as well as the private sector and local community, Consciousness on preservation of nature and protection of environment tends to increase. Though Coxs Bazar is easily accessible by road, still there is no rail links in this city. The government spending abundant amount of money to get Coxs Bazar rail linked within 2 years. Governments infrastructure development planning includes the work on the upgraded hit man cable connection of Coxs Bazar Landing Station to increase the bandwidth (Unb, 2011). Development of major inf rastructure to serve resorts should be coordinated to meet the demands of the industry with boarder economic and social needs (Brohman, 1996). The presence of tourism in any destination always brings environmental, socio- culture and economic impacts. Less developed destinations like Coxs Bazar are more susceptible. Development of tourism in Coxs bazar brings external money flow which drives the living standard of the locals to higher(prenominal) level. Development of tourism in Coxs Bazar on a long-term basis is to give due importance to the above impacts for its sustainability. It needs a long term planning, continuous development work, avoid the negative impacts and investment timing have to be pre assignd (Quader, 2010). The current growth in tourist numbers to Coxs bazar has led to the recognition that consideration needs to be given to a sustainable tourism development strategy if the site is to be maintained for future generations.3.0 Aims and objectivesIn undertaking this i nvestigation, this dissertation has number of aims and objectives. As sustainable tourism is a very well established term in modern tourism industry due to a heightened environmental awareness, it is important to understand how it functions and whom it targets. The goal of environmentally sustainability is a maximum level of desired outcome such as economic profit, quality of life what will maintain in a potent way, emergence to constraints imposed by environment. Basis on this concept it can be said that environmentally sustainable tourism implies a diagnose importance on maintaining a certain level of environmental quality. This is spotlight that, a sustainable environment and a viable tourism industry are essential elements to make an environmentally sustainable tourism (Johnston Tyrrell, 2007). In order to do understand the term and the function of environmentally sustainable tourism, it will first be necessary to outline the basics of the tourism industry in less developed country like Bangladesh and how it has changed over the years. By doing this it will be possible to better understand how the sustainable tourism industry fits into Coxs Bazar.3.1 AimsThe core aim of the social and economic perspectives of tourism is to inspire more international and domestic tourists to promote the growth of tourist value which focus on creating employment, achieving revenue, developing local engagement (Gilmore et al., 2007) and enable some members of the population to move from the informal sector to higher compensable jobs in the formal sector (Sinclair, 1998). The environmental aim is often conflict between the economic and social perceptions which is to protect and to conserve both culture and the environment (Gilmore et al., 2007). The host population is itself a part of the tourism product. The rapid growth of tourism in any less developed countries and destinations raises questions of sustainable tourism development, particularly the access and economic benefits to local economies. For this dissertation, it is most important to know the various facets of the relationship between host population and tourism industry of Coxs Bazar of Bangladesh. The locals are subjects to be viewed and interacted with, or settings for tourist activities, and their spots and demeanor constitute the hospitality resource of a destination (Smith, 1994). According to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) (1993), tourism is sustainable when it improves the quality of life of the host community provides a high quality of experience for the visitor and maintains the quality of the environment on which both the host community and the visitor depend. Coxs Bazar have limited opportunities and resources for agriculture or industrial development and are turning to tourism to create the major source of economy though a huge part of population are still problematical in fishing, collecting sea foods and sea products for their livelihood. Traditionally, it is a conservative connection and socio-culture, economy and the quality of life is still below than national add up (Ahammed, 2010). The aim of this project is to critically assess whether Coxs Bazar in Bangladesh can be developed in a sustainable way.3.2 ObjectivesFinally, having completed a thorough investigation and after evaluation of the information collected will leads up to the current prevalence of the sustainable tourism in Coxs Bazar, it will then be possible to imagine how the industry may develop in future.Objectives are To evaluate and define sustainable tourism development in term of environment, economic and culture. To investigate and find the specific extremity for sustainable tourism development in Coxs Bazar. Critically discuss whether the people of tourism industry in Bangladesh really know the meaning of sustainable development? To illustrate useful conclusions and make effective recommendations on sustainable tourism development for Coxs Bazar that can be implem ented by the tourism authority of Bangladesh.4.0 Methodology and MethodThe following section of this dissertation shall outline the orderology and the regularity that shall be utilize for the immemorial research section of this dissertation.4.1 MethodologyIn tourism research there is an on-going need for statistical insights but soft research offers a great train of understanding at social life from in a different way (Phillimore and Goodson, 2004). Phillimore and Goodson (2004) argue that tourism researchers are not bound to dramatize a simple set of methods, and are therefore free to mix in a wide range of approaches with a more sophisticated attitude to use qualitative research.This project used both primary and supplementary info resources. In terms of primary information sources, this dissertation relied on the research work that I have carried out on sustainable tourism development in Coxs Bazar. Priority was given to the semi structure interviews I took in April 2011 which resulted in to develop conclusions and recommendations based on the findings that could be implemented in Coxs Bazar.In order to give concrete accuse to the primary research conducted this research will also contain some secondary research. Collecting data from people who are involved with the tourism industry in Bangladesh will give considerable ideas that will have been formed by looking at secondary literature. It will also provide the dissertation with a personal insight which cannot be gained from conducting qualitative research alone.4.1.1 Primary ResearchFrom the outset, I decided that my research objectives more easily lend themselves to more qualitative forms of outline. This study is essentially attempting to determine how a number of complex concepts impact and relate to one another. It requires the subject area to be looked at from a number of different perspectives and for links between these separate perspectives to be determined. Britten et al (1995) ap prise that employing qualitative methodology allows for the researcher to, Address research questions of immediate relevance which are other than difficult to investigate (p. 105). Flick et al (2004) go on to point out that the use of qualitative methodology can aide in, the understanding of complex relationships rather than explanation by isolation of a iodine relationship, such as cause and effect (p. 8). Sofaer (1999) further argues that this can result in, rich descriptions of phenomenait not only serves the desire to describe it also helps move the interrogative towards more meaningful explanations (p. 1102). It is for these reasons that this study will approach the research objectives from a qualitative, rather than giving practical weight to quantitative, approach.4.1.2 second-string ResearchSecondary abbreviation has a well-established pedigree. This will provide the useful information in order to understand the background of the subject. Hakim (1982) state that, seconda ry data abridgment is any further analysis of an existing dataset which presents definitions, conclusions or knowledge additional to, or different from, those produced in the first report on the inquiry as a whole and its main results(p 1). Secondary data can embrace a whole range of experimental forms it can include the data generated through systematic reviews, through documentary analysis as well as the results from government sponsored surveys (Smith, 2008). Secondary literature provides a considerable source for appreciative which is necessary when making decisions regarding any topic and placing advance theories to develop situations.4.2 MethodThe first method that was considered was focus groups. MacNaghten and Myers (2004) suggest that this method is most useful for researchers who perhaps, are not entirely sure what categories, links and perspectives are relevant (p. 65). However, this method can yield data that can be difficult to understand and interpret. For an inexpe rienced researcher this could present a problem and could lead to data that is perhaps not as rich as it could be.I finally chose semi-structured interviews as my primary research method. Kvale (1983) states that the use of this method presents the researcher with the opportunity to, gather the life-world of the interviewee with respect to interpretation of the meaning of the described phenomena (p. 174). It is this real world experience that will give my data real depth and will hopefully help me to understand some of the complex problems faced by my respondents. Another advantage of this method is outlined by Blee and Taylor (1995) who argue that semi-structured interviews places human agency, at the centre of the movement analysis. Qualitative interviews are a window into the everyday world of activists, and they generate representations that embody the subjects vocalizations, minimizing, at least as much as possible, the voice of the researcher (p. 96).I had hoped to be able to conduct this research in Coxs Bazar. However, it became clear to me early in my research that this was not likely to be popular. Instead, I chose to focus my research on travel agencies in the UK who offer holidays to Coxs Bazar and other parts of Bangladesh. I chose to draw my sample group from agencies located in Bangladeshi communities. Tower Hamlets, Manchester and Oldham have arguably the highest submergence of Bangladeshis in the country, so I chose to target travel agents here. As people working in the industry are answering my questionnaires, I apprised them that they will remain anonymous to make them feel more sure-footed to give honest answer.I phoned round several agencies and managed to secure interviews with 5 travel agents. A few days before the interviews, these respondents were sent an outline of my study so that they could perhaps begin to prepare their responses. This would hopefully yield richer data for me to use. These interviews were mostly conducted face t o face, although two was conducted over the phone and Skype. I recorded the interviews and took extensive notes during them. I was conscious of the fact that, in semi-structured interviewing, analysis and interpretation are on-going processes (Blee and Taylor, 2002 110). Unlike in quantitative data order where one waits until all the data is collected before pass overing the analysis process, with qualitative data collection, the analysis is an on-going process. In the analysis of the data, I employed a fairly liberal interpretation of the grounded theory method. Stern (1994) suggests that this method is most helpful for researchers exploring new subject areas or who simply want to gain a fresh perspective on a old(prenominal) situation (p. 30). The use of this method demands that the researcher constantly re-evaluates the data collected and then categorizes and codes it. I decided that my codes would be the objectives set at the start of this dissertation. I re-listened to my in terviews to my interviews a number of times to find parts of the data that best met my objectives.The following section of this dissertation will present the findings from the primary research and discuss these in light of the findings from the literature search. The objectives of the study (see 3.2) were used as markers in the interviews. Although the respondents were allowed to veer off track, I always tried and true to bring the discussion back to the four main objectives guiding this research.Notes I did not add references cause of the word limits. Once I finalised this work I will go through Gold proofread again.