Sunday, March 31, 2019
Role of Media as a Tool of Learning: Agenda Setting Theory
Role of Media as a Tool of cognizeledge agendum Setting TheoryChapter 3 hypothetic FrameworkTheoretical habit model of the study is a structure that bottom hold or support a speculation of explore work. It presents the theory which explains why the difficulty under study exists. Thus, the Theoretical Framework is only a theory that serves as a basis for conducting research.Theoretical Framework of this study has been chosen on the basis of the considered judgment of the detective. This research has analyzed within the framework of schedule ground theory of parley and sociable study theory. Agenda place theory leave suffice to analyze the case of intelligence servicepapers in consideration the docket for policy makers and formatting common opinion. Secondly the researcher also selected tender development theory. This theory will also help to analyze the component of media as a tool of nurture and as a social institution in improving the placement of chela rights in Pakistan.Media has the strong power to solution and hold large numbers mind due to its diversity. Researcher fool got decl atomic number 18 integrityselfed and given several communication theories to describe the diversity of media. This chapter is related to the explanation of different function of media, by means of description of two communication theories, in the connection with this study.Agenda position theory explains how the media sets its schedule and manipulate the things and phenomenon. Media also give the selection of reportage to the exhausts to grip mickles mind. Seeing in this context, if media give reporting to the solution of the government put out, it great deal take over a constructive role for society, for macrocosmness the part of process of resolving the conflict.3.1. Agenda Setting Theory The iron out may non be successful much of the age in sexual relation people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its re ader what to think slightly (B.Cohen1963). The concept of docket setting was put in early 20th century.It was first discussed by Walter Lippmann in his record book Public Opinion in 1922. Lippmann emphasized that the picture of reality created by reinvigorateds media were merely reflections of the actual reality and sometimes distorted. He domain that the word of honor media projection of world creates a pseudo environment and people react to this pseudo environment.McCombs and Donald Shaw defined docket setting in choosing and dis crookacting news, editors, newsroom staff, and broadcasters play an important part in shaping practical reality. Readers learn non only about a given issue, but how much splendour to attach to that issue from the amount of randomness in a news story and its position (1972, p.176).Kurt and Gladys Engel Lang (1959) also wrote The mass media force trouble to trustworthy issues. They build up public images of public figures. They atomic number 18 constantly presenting objects suggesting what individuals in mass media should think about, know about and have feeling about,thither be two assumptions underlie most research on agenda settingThe press and the media do not reflect reality they riddle and shape it.Media concentration on a hardly a(prenominal) issues and subjects leads the public to embrace those issues as more(prenominal) important than another(prenominal) issues.3.1.1. Functions of Agenda SettingThe agenda setting functions has multiple componentsMedia agenda are issues discussed in the media, such as newspaper, tv and radio.Public agenda are issues discussed and personally relevant to members of the public. polity agenda are issues that policy makers consider important, such as legislators. bodied agenda are issues that big business and corporation consider important, including corporation.These 4 agendas are interrelated. The two basic assumption underlie most research on agenda setting are the press and the media do not reflect reality, they filter and shape it, and media concentration on a hardly a(prenominal) issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues. 3.1.2. Levels of Agenda SettingMedia sets the agenda for the people about any particular issue in following steps or take aimsThe first level of agenda setting is most traditionally studied by researchers. In this level the media use objects or issues to influence the public. In this level the media suggest what the public should think about amount of coverage.In the second level agenda setting the media focus on characteristics of the objects or issues. In this level the media suggest how the people should think about the issue.3.1.3. UsageDue to its effectiveness, the agenda setting theory has been used in political advertising, political campaigns and debates, business news and corporate reputation, business influence on federal policy, legal systems, and role of grou ps, audience reassure, public opinion, and public relations, the mass media has priming effects, in that the perennial ikon of audiences to ideas and information in the media triggers related ideas and feelings in their minds.The agenda setting theory directly relates to the present research because coverage of Minority issue had been analyzed and that particular coverage was under influence of the agenda setting function of the media.In 1960s Funkhouser Ray.G conducted a research to conduct a research to look at the relationship between media content and reality. To abridge the measuring rod of public opinion he used Gallup polls and obtained measure of media content by counting the number of articals on each issue in three weekly magazine, Times, Newsweek and US News.Funkhouser (1960) conclded that, the news media are believed by many people ( including many policy makers) to be reliable information sources but data presented here indicate that this is not necessary the case .The agenda setting theory is useful in explaining how the Pakistani Urdu and English print media sets its agenda to cover child rights and which issues are being highlighted in which delegacy with what context, and how they are being represented in Pakistani print media (Daily Dawn, The News, Jang and Nawa-i-waqt).3.2. sociable acquire theoryThe social accomplishment theory proposed byAlbert Bandurahas become by chance the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. His theory added a social element, arguing that people hindquarters learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Kn proclaim as observational learning (or modeling), this type of learning piece of tail be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors.3.2.1. elementary Social Learning ConceptsThere are three core concepts at the h eart of social learning theory. First is the idea that people can learn with observation. Next is the idea that internal rational states are an essential part of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a budge in behavior.observational learning says people can learn through observation, In his famousBobo doll experiment, Bandura demo that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observe in other people. The children in Banduras studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later(prenominal) allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had antecedently observed. Bandura identified three basic models of observational learningA brave model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior.A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior.A emblematic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media.Intrinsic reinforcement Bandura explained that mental state is important to learn. He noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior. He described essential reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories. While many textbooks place social learning theory with behavioral theories, Bandura himself describes his approach as a social cognitive theory.Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior term behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior, observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors.3.2.2. Model ing processNot all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. The following steps are tortuous in the observational learning and modeling processAttention in order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that detracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model fire or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are farther more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning. remembering the power to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.Reproduction once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. get alo ng practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement.Motivation Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be actuate to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to naval division on time, you mogul start to show up a few minutes early each day.3.2.3. Social learning theory and atomic pile communicationSymbolic models are another type of model that we can learn from. These are non-live models such as those we see on television or read about in books. Other forms of exemplary models include verbal instruction as when an instructor describes for us the actions for driving a car. In this case the get a lineers verbal descriptions combined with demonstration, commonly teaches us most of what we need to know. This is fortunate, for if we had to learn to drive exclusively from consequences of our own actions, few of would survive the driving process (Bandura 1962).As described by Bandura, there are four components of observational learning. To successfully imitate a model we must 1) attend to the model, 2) have some way of retaining what we have seen, 3) have the necessary motor skills to reproduce the behavior. If these conditions are met, we probably know how to imitate the model. Still, one may choose not to. Our actual performances are controlled by, 4) reinforcement contingencies, many of which are vicarious. These four components are not completely separate. Reinforcement processes, in particular, influence what we attend to. As Bandura noted we lots attend to powerful, competent, prestigious models because we have found that imitating them, rather than inferior models, leads to more positive consequences.In todays society mass meda play an important role to influence human behavior through symbolic communication. Social learning theorists have shown that behavior is influenced not only by personal or live models but also by those presented in the mass media. Television and film models, in particular, seem to exert a powerful impact, and one major implication is that television is shaping mankind motivation and behavior on a daily basis. Social learning theorists have been especially concerned with televised violence and use of alcohol and its effect on children. Research has shown that, in fact, it can increase childrens hostility and tendency to consume alcohol within their looktime. Although these findings are complex, it does raise concerns about how much television our early days attends to and what exactly is the content of the programs that they are viewing, including advertisements.An word picture study of Anheuser-Buschs 1995 frog campaign on children 9 to 11 years of age found that 95% of the children recognized Tony the Tiger while 81% recognized the beer frogs. Overall, 73% of the sample remembered the slogan Bud-weis-er and 81% knew the frogs exchange beer. Boys were more likely than girls to remember the product. More children recalled the Budweiser slogan than the slogans for commercials and characters shown during childrens programs (Alcohol form _or_ system of government Network).What gives significance to vicarious influence is that observers can acquire lasting attitudes, stirred reactions, and behavioral proclivities toward persons, places or things that have been associated with modeled emotional experiences. They learn to guardianship the things that frightened models, to dislike what repulsed them and to like what gratified them (Bandura, 1986). At times, television a great deal represents social realities in human nature, social relations, and day to day life of human interactions. The potential danger of heavy consumption of television is the exposure to this symbolic world may make the televised images appear to the authentic state of human affairs. This outcome can be detrimental to those individuals that have no other models that they can observe. In the absence of a parent, guardian or peer that is able to explain reality from fiction, the child may be more inclined to attend and reproduce the modeled behavior seen on television.The fashion and taste industries rely heavily on the social suggestion power of modeling. Because the potency of vicarious influences can be enhanced by showing modeled acts bringing rewards, vicarious outcomes figure prominently in advertising campaigns. Thus, drinking a certain brand of wine or using a particular shampoo wins the loving admiration of scenic people, enhances job performance, masculinizes self-conception, and actualizes individualism (Bandura 2002).Bandura and other researchers have concluded that the mass media not only creates personal attributes but also can alte r preexist ones based on exposure. Exposure plays a large role in the process of social learning theory.Another important aspect of social learning theory in relation to mass media is the flow of information through social networks. As noted before, the exposure that one experiences throughTelevision is often a contributing factor toward behavior, but even up humans that do not watch television or see to radio are affected by the mass media. People are intertwined in networks of relationships that include co-workers, friendships, classmates, teammates, intimate relationships and family members. Because these social networks often overlap, people are often directed by the media to designate what is important to discuss and what the online public agenda may be during a given time period.Therefore, the individual that does not watch television is often involved in social interaction that is based on communication with television viewing audience and other media consumers. This com munication can lead to the same behavior being displayed by the consumer as well as the non-consumer.This abstract modeling that youth can reproduce through observation can provide us valuable information and direction while educating our youth. Banduras work should do a good deal to increase our awareness of the importance of models in child-rearing and education. Although most parents and teachers are already somewhat aware of the fact that they teach by example, they probably have also overlooked how important influential modeling can become.A case in point is bodily punishment many parents attempt to prevent their children from fighting by frosty them when they fight. By spanking, the parents are inadvertently providing a good demonstration of how to control others physically. Similarly, social learning theorists have taught us that whenever we find that we are unable(p) to rid a child of some distressing bit of behavior, we might ask whether we have been inadvertently modeli ng the behavior ourselves (Schunk, 1996).Social learning theory has generated much research. Evidence shows that social learning theory and ones sense of self efficacy predicts such diverse outcomes as alcohol abuse, smoking cessation, pain tolerance, athletic performance, career choices, assertiveness, coping with feared events, recuperation from medical procedures and sales performance.Media is a tool of learning and a social institution. In todays society media play an important role for opinion formation. In this study researcher will analyze that how symbolic learning influence the behaviors of people towards child rights. Does content published in print media played any important role to improve the status of child in Pakistan? Did Government take serious notice of news based on violations of child rights published in newspaper?.