Thursday, February 21, 2019
Dalit Empowerment in India Essay
Dalits causa for em built in bedment started way back during second one-half of the ordinal century with reformatory efforts to uplift the backward groups of Indian baseb every(prenominal)(a) club, curiously Dalits. Later on, it turned into seeking asseverate intervention and generating the idea of gainful modified attention to Dalits/untouchables. Dalits/Untouchables suck been described as The crush of the oppressed and final of the low, who have non been benefited from the opening up of modern-day economic, mixer, political and cultural opportunities. It is said say that at present, millions of people, be tenaciousing to Dalit confederacy have been the victims of discrimination, violence, exploitation, untouchability, p all overty, illiteracy, ignorance, different hate crimes and consequential disabilities for a very long time. They are hardened as lesser human race beings. Dalits straw man for putment was initiated by non-Brahmins of South India. It had econom ic and social thrusts.It demanded education and set ashore for backward and freedom from set rigidities. Some economically strong scarce educationally backward non-Brahmins groups resisted the h old(a) of Brahmins on land, wealth, jobs in government and education. ingress of modern education to all and spree of Reform Movements of early nineteenth century light-emitting diode anti Brahmin currents to gain momentum. By the turn back of the 19th century, it turned into a political movement. Non-Brahmin drawing cards, supported by other(a) backward communities Muslims, Indian Christians, untouchables and tribals, desired to secure a place for themselves in modern callings, to obtain legal rights and position of advocator by federal agency of govt.s intervention. They succeeded in fixing up quotas for them in the state Government jobs. During 1874 and 1885, Mysore state reserved 20% of middle and lower level jobs in the practice of law department for Brahmins and 80% for Mus lims, Non-Brahmins Hindus and Indian Christians.From Government jobs, it spread to educational theme too, in order to prepare non-Brahmins for Government jobs. Around 1909, for the first time, the lowest strata of non-Brahmin Community or the service class, earlier kn possess as Shudras, was conceptualized politically nether the name of untouchables, when the Census Commissioner suggested excluding untouchables (comprising of about 24% of the Hindu world and 16% of the total population at that time) from Hindu fold for approaching 1911 Census. The proposal had dual-lane non-Brahmin Community into two Backwards and untouchables. Also, it had immediately increment the importance of untouchables in political circle, in social circle, and in their own eyes too. It had also made numbers important in taking political decisions.The suggestion to exclude untouchables from Hindu population was not pleasant to prominent National Hindu leaders at any cost, for whom round-the-clock mak e up of the number of Hindu population had already been a study of concern. Granting special electorate to Muslims had already weakened the National movement of Independence. They were concerned that such a proposal was made intentionally to break open Indians. That was a decisive point. Since then, the avowal of Dalit leaders has travelled a long distance and has passed with various stages. The whole of twentieth century, especially the first and last two decades have been especially important for political em reasonment of Untouchables/Dalits. Different impairment have been used for Dalits at different points of time. Each one take for granted importance, as Dalit movement has passed by means of various stages Shudras, Outcasts and PanchamasTill the outgrowth of 20th Century, the lowest strata of Hindu Community were k at a timen as Shudras, Panchamas or out associations. instauration of Shudras (at present referred as untouchables/Dalits) was recognized, as early as, P re Mauryan Period (6th century BC to 3rd century BC). Though disposed a lower locating, they were forever an integral part of Hindu society. In quaint India, Shudras performed essential social and economic tasks as well as in agricultural sector. segregation of lower associations in Hindu Society was not establish on economic status or their incapability to do any apt work, solely on cultural grounds unclean habits, in-disciplined life style, language foul and abusive language etc.Conquered groups or individuals, groups engaged in menial or unclean occupations, groups clinging to the practices, which were not ensureed respectable, persons born illegitimately or the groups engaged in anti-social activities were treated as Shudras and were given lowest status in the society. Breaking the circle rules meant loss of clan, meaning complete proscription or having no place in the society. Permanent loss of caste out-caste- was considered to be the greatest catastrophe for an i ndividual, short of death penalty. By the beginning of Christian era, the out-castes themselves developed caste hierarchy and had their own out-castes.In occidental and Southern parts of India, they were unbroken outside the four Varnas. In the northerly and Eastern parts of India, they were very much belonged to fourth Varna Shudra, which was divided into two parts pure or non-excluded and excluded or untouchables. In ancient India all the social groups were placed more or less as a series of vertical parallels. each(prenominal) of the people living in a local area, whether high or low were bound unneurotic by economic and social ties and had a strong bond of vernacular dependence. They cared and supported each other in fulfilling different kind of their needs. Socially, Shudras were suppositional to do all sorts of menial work and serving the upper castes of the cardinal Varnas.Respect to a person or group was never given on the basis of material success or entrance of po wer. on that point was hardly any room for any section of society to consider itself, as being placed in greater or lesser disadvantageous position with reference to another. Concept of forwards or backwards or feeling of exploitation of lower strata by upper castes was or so non-existent at that time. more studies have shown that Hindu scheme ever kept masses reconciled, if not contended in the past. Hindu Dharma taught the people that instead of dimension others responsible, for all their stick outings, exploitation and miseries it was their own Adharma (immoral behaviour), Alasya (laziness) and Agyan (ignorance) which were to be blamed.It never delayed Shudras or others to machinate in the scale of society or to earn respect of the society. In many parts of the boorish, people belonging to lower strata held position of power/superior status or earned respect of Hindu society. Many warrior kings of Shudra and tribal origin sought Brahmins help to acquire Kshatriyas statu s for themselves. Many Shudras were accepted and revered as philosophers or spiritual teachers. All troubles of lower strata of society started by and by the downfall of Hindu Raj and old Hindus values. never-ending invasions by Turks, Afghans and Mughals who earlier drained out the wealth of the nation to immaterial lands and afterwards made India their homeland and ruled the country for centuries. Feudalistic attitude, sumptuousness and luxurious life style of rulers and those at the helm of authority, increased the inconsistency between the rulers and the ruled. on that pointfore, it can be said that it was not out of malice, but the circumstances, which has pushed Shudras away from the mainstream.The low status and sufferings of Shudras or their exclusion from the mainstream for centuries has gradually halt growth of their personality and made them completely dependent on others for their livelihood. Centuries old enslavement, ignorance, suppression and ostracism shook the ir confidence, deteriorated severely their given and made them to suffer inhuman treatment by other sections of the society.Depressed ClassDuring the nineteenth Century, in official circles lower castes were addressed as Depressed classes or Exterior classes. British government in India regarded these people as ladened of the oppressed and lowest of the low. Missionaries were trying to convert this section of society into Christianity. British rulers passed many Legislative regulations and administrative orders and declared denial of price of admission to untouchables to schools, well, roads and public places as illegal. Till now, untouchable activities were combined with the negociate castes non- Brahmin movement. But now all these developments inspired them to enter into the political arena under the name of depressed class and desired to a share in political power separately in India.HarijansThe movement of British rulers in 1911 to exclude untouchables from Hindu population and continuous decline of number of Hindus cautioned the national leaders. In order to retain their Hindu identity, Gandhiji and his pursual called them Harijans meaning the people belonging to god. On one hand, Gandhiji tested to create compassion in the police van of forward communities for Harijans and on the other he appealed to Harijans to happen cleaner habits, so that they could mix up freely with other sections of society.Dalit leaders did not like the word Harijan as it symbolized a meek and helpless person, at the mercy and benevolence of others, and not the proud and independent human being that they were. During this period, the attention of humanitarians and reformers was also draw towards the pathetic condition of untouchables. They took the path of Sankritisation to elevate them. In order to prevent alienation of untouchables from Hindu community, they drew the attention of forward communities towards inhuman condition of lower strata of society and tried to crea te compassion in their hearts for downtrodden.They gave top to the highest degree priority to the abolition of untouchability. They tried to clarify that Untouchability was neither an integral part of Hinduism nor an outcome of Varna/caste system, nor have any spiritual sanctity, but an external impurity and sinful blot on Hinduism. They situated emphasis on education, moral re extension and philanthropic uplift. They also appealed to untouchables to observe cleaner habits, so that they could mix up with other sections freely and pay back proud and independent human beings, which they were.UntouchablesBy 1909, the lowest strata of Indian society came to be known as untouchables. Emergence of Dr.Ambedkar on the political guessing provided the leadership and stimulus to untouchable movement. He insisted to address untouchables just as untouchables. He regarded the terms Depressed classes, Dalits, Harijans either confusing or corrupting and contemptuous. Dr.Ambedkar made it abund antly clear, It was through political power that untouchables were to make up ones mind their solution, not through acceptance by Hindus. He gave untouchable movement a national character and a distinct identity during late twenties and early thirties. Other prominent Dalit leaders like Mahatma Phule, Ambedkar or Gopal Ganesh vehemently criticized Hindu hierarchical structure and regarded untouchability as an inevitable concomitant of Varna/caste system.They taught the lower castes to get united and make eradication of caste system their major plank as it engaged them to forced wear down or unsavory jobs, imposed many restrictions on them and prevented them from joining the mainstream of the society. According to them, Hindus treated lower castes as lesser human beings, meek and helpless persons, who should always remain at the mercy and benevolence of upper castes. They tried to define the solution of their problems through political power, not through acceptance by Hindus. By 1 920s, numerous caste organizations, especially in the South and West, organized themselves into larger collectiveness by keeping contacts and alliances with their counterparts at other places formed associations and federations at local and regional levels and emerged as a powerful political force.Together, they demanded special legal protection and share in politics and administration on the basis of caste. In 1928, Simon Commission established their separate identity at national level, independent of median(a) castes as untouchables. It readily accepted their demands through Communal Award of 1932. Gandhiji along with other National leaders regarded it as the Unkindest cut of all, which would create a permanent split in Hindu Society, perpetuate casteism and make impossible the assimilation of untouchables in mainstream. Dr.Rajendra Prasad said, The normal of dividing population into communal groups, which had been adopted in the Minto Morely Reforms, had been considerably exte nded, even beyond what had been done by Montagu Chelmsford Reforms.The electorate in 1919 was broken up into ten parts, now it is fragmented into seventeen unequal bits Giving separate representations to Schedule Castes get on weakened Hindu community The British introduced every possible cross-classification.Untouchables in Independent IndiaAfter Second public War military issue of the concept of welfare state swept the whole world. Independent India, as a civilized democratic society, considered it its humanitarian obligation to uplift and empower the settle sections of society. The overwhelming poverty of millions belonging to lower strata of society and their in force(p) absence in echelons of power at the time of Independence has led the government to of India to intervene.The Constitution of India has directed the Government to promote social justness and educational, economic and other interests of the weaker sections with special care. It instructed the Government to remove the poverty and abbreviate inequalities of income and wealth and provide adequate representation to the downtrodden in power echelons through Affirmative put to death Program/Reservation Policy. Public facilities, which were denied to untouchables so far, should be made accessible to them. The successive governments both at national as well as provincial levels initiated various Welfare Plans and Policies for employment generation and their social, economic and political growth from time to time.DalitsDalit, a Marathi word means suppressed. The term was chosen and used proudly by Ambedkars pursual under the superior of various f executions of Republican Party of India (Formed in 1956). The Mahars of Bombay (8%), Jatavs of UP (Half of the SC Population in UP) and Nadars and Thevars of Southern TN being numerically significant, compete a decisive role in taking forward Dalit movement. Maharashtra Dalit movement has a longest and richest experience. In 1972, a distinct poli tical party, in the name of Dalit Panther was formed in Maharashtra. It organized the lower castes under the banner of Dalit throughout India. One of the founders of Dalit Panther, Mr.Namdeo Dhasal widened the scope of Dalit by including SC, tribes, neo-Buddhists, landless labour and economically exploited people. Its orientation was primarily militant and rebellious. Dalit Sahitya Movement legitimized and reinforced the use of the term Dalit. Since then, this term is very popular amongst the untouchables.Earlier, a some leaders of untouchables had at least some regard for the cultural customs of India. They did not reject Vedic literature or the foundations of Hinduism, out-rightly. Dr.Ambedkar accepted that all parts of Manusmiriti were not condemnable. Gopal Baba Walangkar had said that Vedas did not support untouchability. Kisan Fagoi, another Mahar leader of pre-Ambedkar era had joined Prarthna Samaj. But present Dalit leaders are vehemently against cultural traditions of Ind ia, which according to them, are establish on inequality and exploitation. There is always a fear of upper caste or intermediate caste backlash. In mid sixties, an aggressive Dalit movement started under the banner of Shoshit Samaj Dal in Central Bihar, which has, presently, become a major centralise of Naxalite movement. Dal was founded by Jagdeo Mahto, who began to mobilize the lower castes against economic repression and exploitation of women by upper caste feudal elements.The new phase of Dalit assertion is just about prominent in the most populous state of UP, where the upper caste domination has been challenged by BSP (Bahujan Samaj Party) formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi read/write memory and Mayavati. They redefined Dalit politics especially in north India. Their approach to Dalit issues was more socio-political instead than economic. BSP has started pursuing power with militancy since 1990. Of late, BSP has made significant inroads in UP, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh. BSP has borrowed all their phraseology from Dalit Panthers. Most of their utterances are arrogant, revengeful and opportunistic. Political and economic vested interests of its leaders have aroused militancy among discontented youths of different castes and communities all over the nation. They care only for rights and pay scant attention to their duties. There started a cutthroat competition for scarce positions of power and prestige.Once again, the tendency of divide and rule, as was there during British domination, has emerged in national scenario. The growing desire of Dalits to rule has made them very sure of their friends and foes. Dalit leaders, even after so many years of Independence has identified Upper Castes as their enemy and intermediate castes sometimes as their friends and sometimes as their enemies. Kanshi Ram, a BSP leader initiated a formula of DS4, meaning Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangarsh Samiti, taking into its fold untouchables, STs, Muslims and OBCs. OBC leaders also know that Dalit parties now control a large select bank. Therefore, from time to time, they try to please Dalits leaders in order to increase their own political strength. But Dalits are in no fashion to play a second fiddle to other national political parties. They are aware of their growing influence and crucial role as a kink-maker in todays highly competitive and doubtful political atmosphere.All the three major national political formations social intercourses UPA BJPs NDA and National Front are wooing frantically Dalit leaders and competing with each other to have a pre or post poll alliance with them. Instead of demanding a share in power structure, equity or social justice, Dalits now want to reverse the power equation and to transform the society by capturing all political power. Their set is to get hold over the posts of PM-CM (Political Power) through electoral politics and control over administrative authority the bureaucracy through Reservations/A ffirmative Action Program.There is an elite section amongst Dalits, which protects its turf under the banner of Dalits at the cost of poorest of Dalits. It does not care much to bring Dalit masses into the mainstream. For some, front end and miseries of large number of Dalits is a recipe for Dalit vote-bank, for others enjoying all the benefits of assentient action programs initiated and implemented by the Government of India and other concessions given to them. Whatever big businessman be the condition of Dalit masses, but the political power and arrogance of Dalit leaders and intellectuals are at rise. And here lies the crux of Dalit politics.Dalits at International political programDalits are not satisfied even after having growing influence in ballot-box politics and attaining sufficient places in the government jobs. Since two hundred1, these activists have been displace the cause internationally arguing that Indian Dalits are like blacks in US till 1950. They faced prob lems in workplace, at school and in temples. In 2005, some Dalit leaders belonging to All India Confederation have sought intervention USA, UN and the British and EU Parliaments on the issues of untouchability. UN recognizes religion, race, language and sexuality as main causes of inequality in the world. Dalit activists want caste to be included too in this category. They desire to have Global alliance, global involvement and intervention of the international community to put pressure on the government of India to address the problem Dalit marginalization. They feel that globalization and privatization has made it unenviable for Dalits, tribals and OBCs to compete on equal footing or find enough space in the job market indoors the country or abroad. At the behest of the Republican sex actman from New Jersey, Chris Smith, the US Congress had held a hearing on 6.10. 05 on the subject.A resolution on the issue Indias unfinished Agenda Equality and Justice for 200 million victim s of the caste system was prepared by the house delegacy on International Relations and US gracious Rights to be tabled in the US Congress. Despite the Indian governments extensive affirmative action policies, which aim to open government service and education to Dalits and tribes, most have been left behind by Indias increasing successfulness. Much much more remains to be done. The resolution says, It is in the interest of US to address the problem of the treatment of groups outside the caste system in the republic of India in order to better tack our mutual economic and security goals. So far, intensive lobbying by Dalit groups including pursuit of Ravidass sect succeeded in getting passed the Equity Bill on jar against 24, 2010 in the House of Lords.It empowered the government to include caste within the definition of race. In 2001, India was able in keeping caste out of the resolution adopted at 2001 Durban Conference. Along with it, staunch supporters of Human Rights, some Scandinavian countries, Church organisations around the world and Lutheran World Federation have shown interest and expressed their solidarity with Dalits. Recently the comment of UN Commissioner for human rights, Navipillay asking India that time has come to eradicate the shameful concept of caste and proposals of UN Human Rights Councils or US based Human Rights stick with (HRW) to recognise caste as a form of discrimination based on descent and birth appear not to be based on rational understanding of caste system.Their opinion about untouchability is greatly influenced by the lobbying of powerful/influential Dalit leaders and Dalit intelligentsia. No one knows where the Dalit assertion will lead the nation to? It is not the paternalistic policies, (which have failed to take back so far the desired results) that are required for the upliftment and empowerment of submerged sections of society, but there is need to educate, make them aware of their rights and duties, provide eno ugh employment opportunities and other civic facilities like health etc at the fink root level for the sustainable growth of backward communities.