Tuesday, April 2, 2019
How Significant is any of Cultural homogenisation to the development of the global tourism and/or hospitality industry?
How Signifi asst is any of heathen homogenisation to the development of the planetary tourism and/or hospitality pains?The main aim of this essay is to explore the role of ethnical homogenisation to the development of the globular hospitality and tourism pains in the espousal of crossroads and consumer demeanour in the protestent contexts. This essay will start by walk around the common character of consumers demand and consumption by-line discuss some key issue of perspectives on consumers demand and, much especially consumers attitude. Consumers attitude is habitually view as a by- product of homogenisation (Reisinger, 2009). Shopping and expenditure have many circumstances the resulting consumer mentalities keep a thoughtful touch upon economic activities. Simultaneously, the wide-reaching media excessively hatful govern mint spending desire. In the orbiculateization viewpoint, the perception of ethnic homogenization bay window be exaggerated (Pieterse, 2009 ), after all, the ball-shaped, the national and the topical anesthetic characteristics of kindly space interlink in dissimilar combinations. Indeed, a further symmetry into the geographical spectrum, heathen homogenisation could increase heathen pluralism (Scholte, 2002).Cultural homogenization comprises the appearance of customer approaches, the up wage increase of local civilisation, the collision of elite culture and the impact of modern technology. The key point is to remember that, although a intermixture of firms have successfully placed themselves globally. But their products and services continue to be consumed by different tidy sum in different ways. (Asgary Walle, 2002). It is the view of (Demooij, 2004) that in untried global consumers has belong increasingly similar in their foster and doings patterns despite their national cultural characteristics. Global consumers be increasingly eating the same(p) food wearing same signs and watching same TV program s. A nonher point in favour of (Demooij, 2004) is that the modern valet has experienced significant cultural destruction. A high overflow of consumerism has simply forced cultural levelling from corner to corner in the military man via a multitude of global agents much(prenominal) as Coca-Cola, Nike, MTV, Microsoft and McDonalds (Saee, 2004).It can be argued that the mathematical process of cultural homogenization and Heterogenization occur simultaneously at difference levels. The homogenization of the consumption patterns occurs at the outside(a) level whereas the efforts to maintain cultural singularity and distinctness occur more at the regional and local level. homogenization and globalisation have a tendency to be the ara of elite, because the generous and deal who are wealthy can manage to pay for the products unattached in global markets. Wealthy, well cultured and well travelled individuals from assorted backgrounds can easily interact with the fashionable envi ronment by garter of the modern technology especially the earnings. People from different backgrounds are right off able to interact globally as never before. Internet makes the world smaller, more findible and increases the level of cultural homogeneity. Although the internet does not bequeath state to fully at a lower placestand other places and lifestyles, just now it does allow people to access more information than in previous human history. (Asgary, and Walle, 2002) (Reisinger, 2009).The brain of the world becoming smaller with a growing sensitivity to cultural differences is a part of the general cultural turn, which involves a wider self-reflexivity of modernity. Modernization has been march on like a steamroller a rudimentary dispute is whether cultural homogenization actually exists or is a fairy story or flashy public speaking. Paul Thomson (1996) criticize it as a globalization rhetoric or global aloney their key arguments is that before 1914 the world preser vation was more internationalized than at present. The unquestioned cultural hegemony of the west is past. New patterns, fashions, confluences and mixtures are taking shape. Growing relationship between the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) and Chime (China, India, and Middle East) are increasingly changing all fact of global trends. An example is the Korean wave in East Asia -the popularity of Korean soap Operas, movies and music which has already peaked. At the same time growing global interconnectedness say towards cultural standardization and uniformization as in the sweep of consumerism, an example is the McDonaldization, a short version of this momentum. (Sturges, 2005) (Yeniyurt and Townsend, 2003)The intuitive feeling of (Ritzier, 2004) is McDonaldization affects not only the restaurants business but besides education, works, leisure, the family and virtually everywhere .it has shown every indication of an unavoidable process, wholesale through the challenging trad ition of the world. McDonalds is a global icon of stiff food and a symbol of cheap and convenient food. One protest to this argument is that it is not true oecumenic. Many countries namely, In Russia, Argentina, as in china people pay high prices for this American ambience gabble (Asgary Walle, 2002). It might be said that though McDonaldization process increases the level of cultural homogeneity but put forth a dominating impact upon many other countries societies. However, there is an argument that there is no such thing as a global consumer one cannot distinguish among European, American, or Asian consumers because of the differences in their lifestyles across continents as well as the local regional and national level. For example, although there are clear differences between the EU countries, there is also a fundamental disparity in their value systems and lifestyles (Wierengn at all, 1996). A high level of consumption generally believed to be a symbol of the good life. A lso global consumer culture detects that people are strongly believe in the unlimited ability and achievements of information and modern technology (Scholte, 2002) (Pieterse, 2009).Tourism is one of the worlds largest multinational economics activities .it involves the sterling(prenominal) flows of goods, services, and people on the surface of the earth, and it is therefore the most visible facet of globalization, Although the role and share of tourism in international trade is rising significantly the rapid speared of information technology has improved the efficiency of the industry operation as well as the quality of services provided to customers .it has also generated change magnitude demand for new travel services (Reisinger, 2009).The development of sophisticate websites has allowed for the direct dissemination of travel information to potential clients. The internet has do travel products globally accessible at much lower cast. As a result customer demand has become mo re technology and internet -driven. From the post -modernist investigation (Williams, 2002) argues that tourism and hospitality organizations have to embarrass traditional marketing theory and market segmentation, instead, they should provide variety, and updating offering, so that people can consume as their wish without reference to a standardized expectation. Example of globalization in the accommodation sectors have include hotel corporation and chain creation, joint venture, franchising, management contracts, and consortia of in bloodsucking hotels major international hotel groups included intercontinental Hotels (The united Kingdom) Accor (France) and cendant, Marriott, and star wood hotels and resorts (united states )these hotel groups are knotted in various countries worldwide (Inter Science Wiley.Com, 2007). For example, Marriott international managing 1300 hotels of different brand world wide with the access to 40 new markets (Scholte (2002) (Reisinger, 2009).Globalizati on in the retail sector includes partnerships, integration, and franchising Tour operators and travel agencies entered into partnerships and or integrated with hotels, make airlines, retail distribution and cruise companies. American express positive a range of products in various sectors of the industry. Numerous studies suggest that a global tourist does not exist (Reisinger, 2009). Very different people cognise in the different countries of the world they have different culture and behaviour patterns. For example, Asian consumers cannot be clustered in to one group because Nipponese differ from, similarly there are differences among European consumers German consumes differ from French. Because there are these cultural differences among consumers from different countries, the marketing mix also changes to suit the national characteristics.According to Scholte (2002) Globalization is the process of incorporating people into a single world. The world is becoming a global villag e. Todays, Globalization is not just about modernization or westernization. It is about an amplification of worldwide economic, socio-cultural, political and environmental relations. These relations link distant places in a such a way that what is happening locally is determined by what is happening globally (Saee,2004). Accesses to the knowledge and the knowledge itself have become the serious factors determining the standard of living, beyond the labour and capital of production. Knowledge generates new ides, turns them into commercial products and services, and increases revenues and incomes of those who know how to use it. Unfortunately, not all nations and economics can benefit yet from globalization developments in new information technology, and access to knowledge (Houlihan, 1994).Cultural homogenisation is perceived by some as discriminatory and moving against human rights. Critics of globalization claim that globalization brings An increased polarization of the world in f avour of the stronger economics Poorer countries become dependent on activities in major economics such as coupled States. The gap dividing rich and poor nation is rapidly increasing. Rich and regent(postnominal) nations have capital and technology, poor and power less nations do no have access to capital and information technology (Saee,2004). Some behaviour that the process of globalization has led to a culture heterogenization. Heterogeneity is developed through an increasing emphasis on local cultural elements such as languages, religion tradition food, shared history, or the role of family. However, the mode of cultural heterogenisation is restricted, global foreign brands, theme parks, films, and television programs have different meaning and impact in the world. The western cloths, soft drinks, cigarettes, liquor, films and books that flooded easterly and central European countries significantly differed from the ethnic clothing and foods and thus were not always popular o n the local markets (Pieterse, 2009).Hybridization is an answer to the cultural differentials of ethnic and nationalist polices because it takes as its point of departure precisely. Hybridization reflects a post-modern sensibility of cutnmix, contravention. It represent in Foucaults term, a resurrection of subjugated knowledge. It also goes under various aliases such as syncretism, realization, message Global localization and local globalization make, first, an empirical case that processes of globalization, past and present, can be adequately described as process of hybridization. Terrorist incident in Bali, The war in Iraq, the economic crisis, and the incorporate scandal such as Enron, Leman Brothers, has made people anxious about security and survival. Evidence quoted by the impacts of war and terrorism is significant. Between October and November 2002, visitors to bali dropped by 60 percent. in the UK holiday booking were stilt 20 percent In February 2003 on the previous year , as a consequence British Airways intended to discard 13000 jobs by March 2004 (Mullins, 2004).To conclude, the tourism and hospitality industry is people based, this is an industry run by people and for people. The real potential for the tourism and hospitality companies lies in their people. Cultural homogenization process has opened new opportunities for developments in hospitality industry and has facilitated branch in tourism through developments in technology and products. (Peric, 2005). (Demooij, 2004) argued that in global consumers has become increasingly similar in their values and behaviour patterns. (Demooij, 2004) beliefs can be supported that but (Hatch Schultz, 2003)) argue that there is no such thing as a global consumer (Reisinge, 2009) argues are similar to(Richardson,2004) that a global tourist does not exist, different people live in the different countries of the world they have different culture and behaviour patterns. Richardson, (2004) is surely correct when he says that consumers behaviour lying on different contexts.The opinion of (Ritzier, 2004) is McDonaldization affects virtually everywhere and has shown every indication of an unavoidable process. It is a global icon and symbol of cheap, convenient food but (Asgary Walle, 2002) argued that, this could be in the United States but not true worldwide. There is no doubtfulness that the process of cultural homogenization has been strengthened by the rise of the internet and other information technologies, companies such as Yahoo , Microsoft , Google , and Motorola have become more important cultural icons like McDonalds and Coca -cola. Finally it can be said that global market is shrinking through globalization and fact that multinational companies are becoming commonplace due to the fundamental reason. Businesses are coming face to face with a multicultural manpower structure in order to obtain competitive advantage. (Dana et al.2008) (Pieterse, 2009) (Reisinger, 2009) (Oliver, 1999)BibliographyAsgary, N. and Walle, H.(2002) The Cultural tinct of Globalisation Economic Activity and Social Change Emerald Group publish Ltd. Vol. 9 Issue 3 p58-75, 18p.Dana, L.A., Merz, M.A., and Yi, He. (2008) A categorization approach to analyzing the global consumer culture debate.Vol.25 issues 2, p166-182.online Available athttp//web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=11hid=101sid=5c2cc1e6-8b45-4bbc-8e09-202ebd5e71b1%40sessionmgr112bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=32929622 Accessed on 2nd January 2010De Mooij, M. (2004), The future is predictable for international marketers converging incomes lead to divergent consumer behaviour, International Marketing Review, Vol. 17 No. 2,pp. 103-13.Hatch, J.M. Schultz, M. (2003) Bringing the corporation into corporate branding.Vol.37issue7/8,p10411064.OnlineAvailableathttp//web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=9hid=101sid=5c2cc1e68b454bbc8e09202ebd5e71b1%40sessionmgr112bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buhAN=10701191Accesse d on 2nd January 2010Houlihan, B. (1994) Homogenization, Americanization, and Creolization of cheer Varieties of Globalization. Vo. 11 issue 4, p-356-375. 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